About This Chapter
Individual Differences - Chapter Summary
Use the lessons in this chapter to understand the current state of the 'nature versus nurture' debate and the roles of genes and the environment on individual human traits. Find out what constitutes a developmental milestone for children, and the growth process from childhood to adolescence. You can also learn how physiology relates to memory, perception and personality development in humans. Each lesson in this chapter is designed to teach you about the factors that make up individual growth and development. Concepts in these lessons include the following:
- Personal, environmental & life cycle factors related to individual differences
- Developmental processes from birth through the teen years
- How heredity and the environment impact the uniqueness of individuals
- Developmental functions of individuals: behavior, thinking & personality
The lessons in this chapter are about five minutes long and consist of bite-sized videos that discuss a variety of topics. The instructors are experts in their fields, and present the lessons in a way that make them understandable and the information easy to retain. You can easily jump around to key topics in each lesson through clickable links on the timeline. Use these links to learn about only the concepts you're interested in or those that need further review. Videos are accompanied by written transcripts that also contain links to vocabulary terms, which can provide further details and explanations, helping you to understand the lesson better.
1. Child and Adolescent Development: Developmental Milestones & Nature vs. Nurture
How does a child develop cognitively? Which influences development more - genetics or the environment? How important are early experiences in the growth and cognitive development of a child? These are some of the major questions that guide the work of researchers in the field of educational psychology. This lesson will begin to address these questions by describing the basic principles that characterize child and adolescent development.
2. Biological Influences on Human Behavior: Genetics & Environment
Humans are a product of both our genetic makeup and our environmental surroundings. Does one influence our behavior more than the other? It can be difficult to tell, but there are ways that scientists can better understand why we do the things we do.
3. Is Personality Genetic? - DNA's Influence on Temperament
How do genetics impact a person's temperament and personality? This lesson will introduce the world of behavioral genetics and help you understand the role our genes play in determining who we are and how we act.
4. The Different Factors Affecting Personality
What makes you unique? In this lesson, we'll examine personality, and some of the factors that affect personality, including how a person's cognition, self-concept, and locus of control can affect how he or she approaches the world.
5. Stability vs. Change in Personality
What makes you who you are? How are you different from other people? And will your personality ever change? Watch this lesson to find out more about the 'Big Five' personality traits and how people change over their lifespan.
6. The Two-Store Model of Memory: Types of Memory and Storage
Do you remember your first day of school? This lesson discusses the foundational concepts behind all memories, including basic types of memory and the process all memories must go through for success: encoding, storage and retrieval.
7. How Perception Influences the Communication Process
Perception's effect on the communication process is all about how the same message can be interpreted differently by different people. Distortions, such as stereotypes, projections and halo effects, all affect worker relationships and productivity.
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