About This Chapter
Industrialization and Urbanization from 1870-1900
At the end of the 18th century, the first industrial revolution brought strong economic development and the introduction of power-driven machinery. The second industrial revolution, in the late 19th century, brought mass production, in addition to new business organization and management methods. Although not very well known to anyone not living in Bessemer, Michigan, Henry Bessemer patented an essential steel smelting process during this period that allowed for the use of steel at an industrial level. In addition to Bessemer, you can also meet and find out about the inventions of Edison, Bell and Westinghouse.
You've probably heard of Andrew Carnegie and his huge donations towards libraries, colleges and churches. But, did you know that he's considered a 'Robber Baron'? If not, this chapter can show you how a group of industrialists became very wealthy through somewhat questionable business practices, thereby earning this name.
The second industrial revolution also brought the rise of labor unions, such as the Knights of Labor, the American Federation of Labor and the Industrial Workers of the World. In these lessons, you can learn why many workers felt unions were necessary and hear about some of the negative results of unionization.
From 1870-1900, almost 25 million people immigrated to the United States from foreign countries and joined the workforce. Many Americans still preferred to hire 'natives' and treated immigrants as inferior. Legislation passed before the end of the century, limiting the number of immigrants allowed to enter the country. As we arrive at the end of the century, we also come to the end of this chapter. By listening to each video lesson, you can find out how the United States became industrialized and urbanized, moving away from rural cultures to the cities. Through completion of the quiz following each lesson, you can discover any topics that you need to review.
1. Economic Policies During the Second Industrial Revolution
With encouragement from the federal government, the Second Industrial Revolution transformed America from an agrarian nation into an industrial power. The mixed effects of these changes on the American people prompted Mark Twain to dub the period the 'Gilded Age.'
2. American Industry Development in the Gilded Age: Bessemer Process, Scientific Management & New Business Models
American industry was transformed in the Second Industrial Revolution but not just through mechanization. Find out how new methods of management and organization helped the development of big business.
3. Andrew Carnegie and the Robber Barons
The Second Industrial Revolution created enormous wealth for industrialists like Andrew Carnegie. These corporate leaders were sometimes called Robber Barons for their questionable business practices, but they were also well-known for their philanthropy.
4. Labor Conditions During the Second Industrial Revolution
In the period between the Civil War and World War I, the American economy - supported by industry rather than agriculture - boomed. But, not everything glittered in the Gilded Age. Learn about the difficult, dangerous conditions of work during the Second Industrial Revolution.
5. Labor Unions During the Second Industrial Revolution: Organized Labor vs. Management
Before American businesses had to comply with basic labor laws and safety regulations, workers organized to improve their working conditions. Learn about the early labor unions and their violent clashes with management and government.
6. The Grange and the Populist Party Platform: Goals, History & Definitions
During the Gilded Age of the late 19th century, farm prices fell and the federal government began supporting industry. Farmers first organized the Grange, a social movement that turned political with Farmers' Alliances. The Populist Party emerged to represent agrarian interests at the national level.
7. Immigration in Industrial America and the Rise of Nativism
Between the Civil War and WWI, America experienced a massive third wave of immigration. Learn about where these immigrants came from, where they went and how 'native' Americans responded to them.
8. Urbanization During the Second Industrial Revolution in America: Effects & Problems
After the Civil War, America transformed from a rural nation to an urban nation. Learn where all those people came from and why. Using New York City as an example, you'll see some of the problems of urbanization and the steps they took to improve it.
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Other chapters within the NY Regents Exam - US History and Government: Test Prep & Practice course
- Colonial Period and Road to Revolution
- The American Revolution
- The US Government in 1776-1800
- The Virginia Dynasty & Jacksonian Democracy
- Manifest Destiny & Westward Expansion
- Build Up to the American Civil War
- American Civil War & Reconstruction
- The Progressive Era & American Imperialism
- The 1920s in America
- The Great Depression & World War II in America
- Cold War & Activism in America
- The 1970s in America
- The 1980s Through Today
- NY Regents Exam - US History and Government Flashcards