About This Chapter
Industrialization & Urbanization (1870-1900) - Chapter Summary and Learning Objectives
Industrialization and urbanization had a huge impact on America during the period near the end of the 19th century. In this chapter, you can learn more about the significant events of the years 1870 to 1900 and the impact they had on the nation. Explore various aspects of the second Industrial Revolution, including economic policies, labor conditions, urbanization and middle class opportunities. You can also take a closer look at industrial leaders like Andrew Carnegie and examine politics during this time period.
The lessons in this chapter are easy to explore. Simply scroll through the list and click on those you feel you most need to learn about or review. With each lesson is a self-assessment quiz you can take to assess how well you understand topics covered. A timeline is located below each video that allows you to identify and skip to key topics within the lesson. You can take a chapter exam to reinforce the concepts explored in all the lessons. Upon completion of this chapter, you should be able to complete the following objectives:
- Detail economic policies during the Second Industrial Revolution
- Outline American industry development in the Gilded Age
- Give an overview of Andrew Carnegie and the robber barons
- Relate information about labor conditions during the Second Industrial Revolution
- Discuss civil service reform and political machines in Gilded Age politics
- Describe the conflict between organized labor and management during this time
- Detail the rise of nativism and immigration in industrial America
- Explain the effects and problems of urbanization in America
- Define the Social Gospel Movement and the goals of the urban reform movements
- Identify opportunities for the middle class in American cities during the Second Industrial Revolution
1. Economic Policies During the Second Industrial Revolution
With encouragement from the federal government, the Second Industrial Revolution transformed America from an agrarian nation into an industrial power. The mixed effects of these changes on the American people prompted Mark Twain to dub the period the 'Gilded Age.'
2. American Industry Development in the Gilded Age: Bessemer Process, Scientific Management & New Business Models
American industry was transformed in the Second Industrial Revolution but not just through mechanization. Find out how new methods of management and organization helped the development of big business.
3. Andrew Carnegie and the Robber Barons
The Second Industrial Revolution created enormous wealth for industrialists like Andrew Carnegie. These corporate leaders were sometimes called Robber Barons for their questionable business practices, but they were also well-known for their philanthropy.
4. Labor Conditions During the Second Industrial Revolution
In the period between the Civil War and World War I, the American economy - supported by industry rather than agriculture - boomed. But, not everything glittered in the Gilded Age. Learn about the difficult, dangerous conditions of work during the Second Industrial Revolution.
5. Gilded Age Politics: Political Machines & Civil Service Reform
Refresh your memory of the 'Forgotten Presidents' of the Gilded Age, and learn how Civil Service Reform might have cleaned up the federal government, but not the cities and states. They were the domain of political machines, like Tammany Hall.
6. Labor Unions During the Second Industrial Revolution: Organized Labor vs. Management
Before American businesses had to comply with basic labor laws and safety regulations, workers organized to improve their working conditions. Learn about the early labor unions and their violent clashes with management and government.
7. Immigration in Industrial America and the Rise of Nativism
Between the Civil War and WWI, America experienced a massive third wave of immigration. Learn about where these immigrants came from, where they went and how 'native' Americans responded to them.
8. Urbanization During the Second Industrial Revolution in America: Effects & Problems
After the Civil War, America transformed from a rural nation to an urban nation. Learn where all those people came from and why. Using New York City as an example, you'll see some of the problems of urbanization and the steps they took to improve it.
9. The Social Gospel Movement: Definition and Goals of Urban Reform Movements
Many Americans were desperately poor around the turn of the 20th century. The Social Gospel movement emerged among Protestant Christians to improve the economic, moral and social conditions of the urban working class.
10. Middle Class Opportunities in American Cities During the Second Industrial Revolution
In the late 1800s, a new middle class emerged in America. In this lesson, learn about new opportunities available to these urbanites, including technology, sports and leisure, education and the arts.
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Other chapters within the AP US History: Exam Prep course
- Early Civilizations of America
- North American Colonial Settlement by Europeans
- Events & Leaders of the American Revolution Overview
- Creation of the United States Post-American Revolution
- The Virginia Dynasty & Jacksonian Democracy Overview
- Everyday Life in Antebellum America
- Overview of Westward Expansion
- Buildup to the American Civil War
- The American Civil War
- After the Civil War: Reconstruction
- Social Issues of the Progressive Era (1900-1917)
- American Imperialism & World War I
- America in the 1920s (1920-1929)
- The Great Depression & New Deal (1929-1940)
- Significant Events of World War II
- World Events & Politics After World War II (1946-1959)
- Events & Presidents During the Cold War (1950-1973)
- Overview of Civil Rights & Other Movements
- Changes in the Modern United States
- Recent American History & Politics
- Critical Thinking Skills for AP US History
- AP U.S. History: Test-Taking Skills and Prep
- Essay Writing Overview
- AP US History Flashcards
- Important Events Leading to the American Revolution