About This Chapter
Inorganic Chemistry Review for High School Biology - Chapter Summary and Learning Objectives
In this chapter, you'll take a look at the critical elements required for life. You'll get a review of chemical bonds and study water properties. Professional instructors will guide you through the laws of thermodynamics and teach you how to write chemical reactions. At the end of this chapter, you'll be familiar with:
- The atom and the electron shell
- Different types of chemical bonds
- Solutions and solvents
- Acids and bases
- Types of chemical reactions
- Weak acids and bases
|What Are Elements?||Find out why elements are considered the building blocks of all matter. Learn how they're expressed as symbols and find out how many elements exist on Earth.|
|The Foundational Elements of Life||Take a look at oxygen, carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen. Get details on elements like phosphorus, potassium and magnesium. Learn about trace elements.|
|The Atom||Get definitions for atom and mass. Learn about protons, neutrons and electrons, which are the three subunits of atoms. Review the periodic table and atomic numbers.|
|The Electron Shell||Learn why electron shells are also known as energy levels. Examine valence electrons and the most stable atoms known as noble gases.|
|Chemical Bonds I: Covalent||Get the definition for chemical bonds and find out how molecules are formed. Learn about a covalent bond's strength.|
|Chemical Bonds II: Ionic||Study electronegativity, anion and ion. Learn about ionic bonds and see examples of ionic compounds.|
|Chemical Bonds III: Polar Covalent||Discover polar and nonpolar covalent bonds. See diagrams of partial charges and discuss partial positive and partial negative charges.|
|Chemical Bonds IV: Hydrogen||Find out why hydrogen bonds are important and get a definition for this type of bond. Learn about the two ways hydrogen bonds can form. Get details on the strength of a hydrogen bond.|
|Properties of Water||See the formula for density and examine the properties of ice and liquid water. Discuss specific heat, cohesion, adhesion and capillary action.|
|Solutions, Solutes, and Solvents||Find out what a solution is composed of and how molecules interact in water. Review hydrophilic and hydrophobic molecules.|
|Osmosis, Diffusion and Saturation||Learn about saturated, unsaturated and supersaturated solutions. Get practical examples of how diffusion works and find out what happens during osmosis. Get definitions for semipermeable membranes, osmotic pressure, isotonic, hypotonic and hypertonic.|
|Acids and Bases||Study the pH scale and see an example of a logarithmic equation. Learn how to define acids and bases.|
|The Laws of Thermodynamics||Learn practical applications for the first and second laws of thermodynamics. Review the formula for total energy and see how these two laws work together.|
|How to Write and Balance Chemical Reactions||Find out the equation for a chemical reaction and see how to use the equation for neutralizing acids and bases. Discover what happens during endergonic and exergonic reactions. Examine the state of chemical equilibrium.|
|Redox (Oxidation-Reduction) Reactions: Definitions and Examples||See examples of redox reactions and understand the process. Define reducing agents, oxidizing agents and electronegativity.|
|Hydrolysis, Dehydration, and Ionic Reactions: Definitions and Examples||Find out what causes dehydration and what happens during hydrolysis. See examples of ionic reactions.|
|Anabolism and Catabolism Reactions: Definitions and Examples||Study the differences between anabolism and catabolism. Find out what happens during these reactions and get examples of each type of reaction.|
|Weak Acids, Weak Bases, and Buffers||Learn more about how weak acids and weak bases work using human blood as an example. Study buffer systems, conjugate bases and acids and the acidity constant.|
1. What Are Elements?
Look around you. What do you see? Elements are everywhere. They are the building blocks of all matter on Earth. In this lesson, we will discuss what an element is, how elements are written as symbols, and how elements are the building blocks of all matter.
2. The Foundational Elements of Life
Living things are complex products of their environments. They are made of a number of different natural elements, many of which are essential to survival. Because of this, they are considered foundational elements and they support life on Earth as we know it.
3. The Atom
Tune into this lesson to find out what matters about matter. What exactly is an atom? And, how do the atoms that make up the elements in the periodic table differ from one another?
4. The Electron Shell
You may be familiar with the role of electrons in electrical devices, but did you know that electrons also determine the chemical reactivity of everything around you?
5. Chemical Bonds I: Covalent
Mom always said that sharing is caring. This lesson will explore how electrons affect the chemical reactivity of atoms and specifically the merits of sharing electrons.
6. Chemical Bonds II: Ionic
Did you know that the scientific name for table salt is sodium chloride? Find out how sodium and chlorine atoms come together to form your favorite seasoning.
7. Chemical Bonds III: Polar Covalent
Are you confused about how you can tell what kind of bond two atoms will form? This lesson will help you understand the difference between polar and nonpolar covalent bonds as well as how to predict how two atoms will interact.
8. Chemical Bonds IV: Hydrogen
This lesson defines and discusses important concepts behind hydrogen bonding. You'll learn when and why these bonds occur and which atoms are often involved.
9. Properties of Water
Why does ice float? Why can water rise on its own against gravity in a small tube? Find out how these mysterious properties of water can be explained by hydrogen bonds.
10. Solutions, Solutes, and Solvents
Oh no! Your friend Ben just drank chili oil on a dare, and now his mouth is burning. Should he drink the ice water or vegetable oil to cool his mouth? Quick. Watch this lesson if you aren't sure.
11. Osmosis, Diffusion and Saturation
The cells in our bodies are in constant flux through the processes of osmosis and diffusion. Learn about how saturation levels force change, and why we're lucky they do.
12. Acids and Bases
Have you ever wondered how we measure the acidity of liquids? Check out this lesson to see how acids and bases are measured on a pH scale and how they relate to neutral solutions, such as water.
13. The Laws of Thermodynamics
Learn about the first and second laws of thermodynamics. Find out how energy is generated, how it converts from one form to another, and what happens to energy in a closed system.
14. Basic Properties of Chemical Reactions
Learn how about the various components of a chemical reaction, and how those components function. Use this lesson to understand the basic properties of different kinds of chemical reactions.
15. Chemical Reactions and Balancing Chemical Equations
In this lesson, you'll learn how to balance a chemical reaction equation using the conservation of matter law. You'll also learn how to write both word and formula equations, what the subscripts after a letter mean and what the numbers in front of compounds mean.
16. Redox (Oxidation-Reduction) Reactions: Definitions and Examples
This short video will explain oxidation-reduction reactions, or redox reactions for short. The focus is on how electrons are transferred during redox reactions. Learn some neat mnemonic devices to help you remember when an atom is oxidizing or reducing.
17. Hydrolysis and Dehydration: Definitions & Examples
Water is an important component of cellular processes. Two of these processes, dehydration and hydrolysis, help your body build large molecules from small ones and break down large ones into usable components.
18. What Are Ionic Compounds? - Definition, Examples & Reactions
Ionic compounds are a common, yet special type of chemical compound. In this video lesson, you will learn about their formation and structure and see examples of compounds formed by ions.
19. Anabolism and Catabolism: Definitions & Examples
Metabolism breaks down large molecules like food into usable energy. This energy drives bodily processes critical to survival. In this video lesson, you will learn about the two forms of metabolism that break down and build up molecules and see examples of each.
20. Weak Acids, Weak Bases, and Buffers
This lesson covers both strong and weak acids and bases, using human blood as an example for the discussion. Other concepts discussed included conjugate acids and bases, the acidity constant, and buffer systems within the blood.
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Other chapters within the Fundamental Biology course
- Basic Terms & Skills in Biological Science
- Basic Science Lab Skills
- Introduction to Organic Chemistry
- Enzyme Function, Interactions & Regulation
- Cell Biology
- Requirements of Biological Systems
- Cell Communication
- Cellular Metabolism & Respiration
- Cell Growth & The Process of Cell Division
- The Nucleotide Structure of DNA & RNA
- Processes & Steps of DNA Replication
- The Transcription and Translation Process
- Mendelian Genetics & Mechanisms of Heredity
- Types & Effects of Genetic Mutations
- DNA Technology and Genomics
- Bacterial Biology Overview
- The Origin of the Universe and Life on Earth
- Geologic Time
- Evolution Overview
- Phylogeny and the Classification of Organisms
- Plant Biology
- Plant Reproduction and Growth
- Introduction to Fungi
- Introduction to Invertebrates
- Introduction to Vertebrates
- Physiology I: The Circulatory, Respiratory, Digestive, Excretory, and Musculoskeletal Systems
- Physiology II: The Nervous, Immune, and Endocrine Systems
- Animal Reproduction and Development
- Human Reproductive Systems
- Ecology and the Environment
- Human Effects on the Environment
- Animal Behavior
- Basic Molecular Biology Laboratory Techniques
- Analyzing Scientific Data