About This Chapter
Introduction to Molecular Biology - Chapter Summary
The lessons in this chapter walk you through the basics of molecular biology by introducing you to the composition and functions of carbohydrate, protein and lipid molecules. Find out how each is structured and what it does. You can also learn about amino acids, peptide bonds and more.
Brightly written, engagingly presented content makes working through these lessons a pleasure. The short duration ensures rapid progression through the chapter, so that you can gain the maximum benefit with a minimal investment of your time. Take the lesson quizzes and chapter test to check your mastery and retention, and use the Dashboard to stay on track. Use these lessons to learn about the following:
- Carbohydrates: what they are and what they do
- Functions and composition of lipids
- Composition and functions of proteins
- Overview of amino acids, peptide bonds and polymerization in proteins
- Characteristics and composition of the 20 amino acids
1. Introduction to Organic Molecules I: Functional Groups
If you've ever wondered what gives vinegar that sour flavor, you may not realize that you have contemplated functional groups. View this lesson for an introduction to organic chemistry, functional groups and how they are part of your daily life.
2. Introduction to Organic Molecules II: Monomers and Polymers
From everyday man-made items like milk jugs and styrofoam to natural proteins and plant materials, the world is full of polymers! Check out this lesson to learn how polymers are constructed on a molecular level.
3. Nucleic Acids: Function & Structure
In this lesson, we will explore what nucleic acids are, including the oozing bodily fluid they were first found in, what makes them unique from other types of biological molecules, and why DNA is called the 'blueprint of life.'
4. Polynucleotide: Structure, Overview
Join a bunch of nucleotides together, and you get a polynucleotide. This could be a long strand of DNA in a cell or a short strand used by scientists in a lab. Learn about the structure and different types of polynucleotides in this lesson.
5. DNA: Chemical Structure of Nucleic Acids & Phosphodiester Bonds
In this lesson, you'll discover what nucleotides look like and how they come together to form polynucleotides. We'll also explore nucleic acids and focus on DNA in particular.
6. DNA: Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine, Thymine & Complementary Base Pairing
Learn the language of nucleotides as we look at the nitrogenous bases adenine, guanine, cytosine and thymine. Armed with this knowledge, you'll also see why DNA strands must run in opposite directions.
7. Differences Between RNA and DNA & Types of RNA (mRNA, tRNA & rRNA)
In this lesson, you'll explore RNA structure and learn the central dogma of molecular biology. Along the way, you'll meet the three types of RNA and see how the cell uses them most effectively.
8. Structure and Function of Carbohydrates
Carbohydrates are found in many foods that we eat and may be found as sugars, starches, or fiber. Learn more about these three distinct types of carbohydrates, and how they are distinguished through their chemical structures in this lesson.
9. Chemical Properties of Carbohydrates
Carbohydrates provide energy for cells to do work. This lesson will discuss what different carbohydrates are made of and what their purpose is. The chemical properties of these carbohydrates help them to be easily used by cells to perform work.
10. Structure and Function of Lipids
Molecules called lipids have long hydrocarbon chains that determine the way they act. They can be fats, oils, or hormones, and even exist in our cell membranes. Learn more about the chemical structure and biological function of various lipids in this lesson.
11. Proteins I: Structure and Function
We need our proteins, not just as a major food group but for the many useful roles that they play in our bodies. In our introductory lesson to proteins, you'll learn about the many functions we rely on them to perform.
12. Proteins II: Amino Acids, Polymerization and Peptide Bonds
In this lesson, we'll take a deeper look at amino acids. You'll learn what makes a peptide, and what separates a protein from other kinds of amino acid bonds.
13. Proteins III: Structure and Characteristics of the 20 Amino Acids
How do amino acids form the intricate polypeptide chains found in proteins? It's a matter of chemistry. Join glycine, a special amino acid, as she sizes up the other amino acids.
14. Proteins IV: Primary, Secondary, Tertiary and Quaternary Structure
How is progressing through higher order protein structures like crafting an essay? In this lesson, you'll explore everything from quaternary structures to denaturation as we show how the different structures are intertwined.
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Other chapters within the Science 101: Intro to Natural Sciences course
- Atomic Structure & Fundamentals of Matter
- Introduction to Thermodynamics
- Cell Biology Fundamentals
- Introduction to Biochemistry
- Cellular Reproduction Processes
- Molecular Genetics Overview
- Plant Anatomy, Physiology & Processes
- Animal Reproduction, Growth and Development
- Animal Anatomy, Physiology & Functions
- Human Anatomy & Physiology
- Environmental Science Fundamentals
- Introduction to Ecology
- Basics of Evolution
- The Origin and History of Life On Earth
- Phylogeny and the Classification of Organisms
- Studying for Science 101