About This Chapter
Introduction to Philosophy & Logic - Chapter Summary
This introduction to philosophy and logic chapter features easy-to-understand lessons that cover the branches of philosophy and role of argument in critical thinking. It also examines the conclusions and beliefs of famous philosophers, such as Socrates and Plato. Watch the lessons as entertaining videos, or scroll down to find full transcripts you can print or read online. Take accompanying quizzes and our comprehensive practice exam to check your knowledge of this chapter. When finished, you will be able to:
- Define and discuss the purpose of philosophy
- Share the meaning of critical thinking and discuss critical thinking skills
- Detail the argument structure from premise to conclusion
- Differentiate between inductive and deductive reasoning
- Discuss the birth of philosophy and perspectives from Presocratic philosophers
- Outline the life, death and philosophy of Socrates
- Provide the definition and examples of the Socratic method
- Summarize Plato's Apology
- Offer a summary of Bertrand Russell's The Problems of Philosophy
1. Philosophy: Definition & Purpose
In this lesson, explore one definition of philosophy and why it is hard to pin down in simple terms. Learn what it means to go beyond having a philosophy to 'doing philosophy.'
2. The Branches of Philosophy
In this lesson, explore how different area of philosophy consider a variety of questions concerning our existence. You'll learn the basics in a condensed way, giving you an overview of the field.
3. What is Critical Thinking? - Definition, Skills & Meaning
Critical thinking is a term that we hear a lot, but many people don't really stop to think about what it means or how to use it. This lesson will tell you exactly what it means and make you realize that the average person largely ignores critical thinking.
4. Argument Structure: From Premise to Conclusion
In this lesson, consider examples of an argument, as the term is understood in philosophy. You'll learn how to create appropriate premises and how this influences how likely it is for a listener to accept your conclusion.
5. The Role of Argument in Critical Thinking
In this lesson, you'll consider what makes a good argument that involves critical thinking. You'll also learn the shortcomings of using opinions to try to prove a claim is valid.
6. The Differences Between Inductive and Deductive Reasoning
Inductive and deductive reasoning are often confused. This lesson introduces the concept of reasoning and gives you tips and tricks to keeping inductive and deductive reasoning straight.
7. The Birth of Philosophy: The Presocratics
This lecture covers the advent of philosophy. It first differentiates philosophy from religion, drawing parallels to modern science. It then establishes the basic questions of Presocratic philosophy: What is matter? and What causes change? The rest of the lecture demonstrates how these questions developed as they were tackled by generations of Presocratic philosophers. Finally, it makes plain our incredible debt to the Presocratics.
8. Socrates: Life, Death and Philosophy
This lecture is a whirlwind tour through the life of Socrates. It begins with an explanation of the Socratic problem, followed by an examination of his philosophy. The lecture ends with a summary of Socrates' legacy.
9. What Is the Socratic Method? Definition & Examples
This lesson discusses a style of teaching and learning known as the Socratic method. You'll consider what makes this approach effective and why it can sometimes be uncomfortable.
10. Plato's 'Apology': Summary & Concepts
Learn about the life of Socrates from the account of his trial, recorded by Plato. Consider how Socrates refuted the charges against him using the same approach he took to his craft.
11. Bertrand Russell's 'The Problems of Philosophy': Summary & Ideas
In this lesson, you will think about what is real compared with what is in our minds. You'll learn how Bertrand Russell described our perception of reality and why he felt these topics are so important to consider.
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Other chapters within the Philosophy 101: Intro to Philosophy course
- Types of Fallacies
- Free Will & Determinism
- Self, Mind & Soul in Philosophy
- God in Philosophy
- Religion & Philosophy
- Reality in Philosophy
- Philosophy in Science
- Intro to Epistemology
- Ancient Epistemology
- Modern Epistemology
- Contemporary Epistemology
- Political Philosophy
- Philosophy & Social Justice
- Studying for Philosophy 101