About This Chapter
Introduction to Plant Biology
Have you ever wondered how all the different plants and flowers are characterized? Do you know how a fern reproduces when it has no seeds or flowers? Learn about the different classifications and characteristics of plants and flowers as our expert instructors guide you through these lessons. At the end of this chapter, you should be able to:
- Properly classify vascular, nonvascular, monocot and dicot plants
- Understand the structure of flowers, plant stems, leaves and root tissues
- Explain apical meristem, primary shoot, lateral meristem and secondary shoot system growth
- Identify the life cycles of plants without flowers or seeds, gymnosperms and angiosperms
- Understand alternation of generations, tropisms and photoperiodicity
|Classification of Vascular, Nonvascualr, Monocot & Dicot Plants||Examine the different classifications of plants.|
|Structure of Plant Stems: Vascular and Ground Tissue||Learn about the meristem, vascular tissue, xylem, phloem and vascular tissue arrangement.|
|Apical Meristem & Primary Shoot System Growth||Discover how plants grow in height.|
|Lateral Meristem & Secondary Shoot System Growth||Explore why some plants grow in width and height.|
|Structure of Leaves: The Epidermis, Palisade and Spongy Layers||Analyze the design of plant leaves.|
|Primary Root Tissue, Root Hairs and the Plant Vascular Cylinder||Examine the function of plant root systems.|
|Root System Growth: The Root Cap, Primary Roots & Lateral Roots||Explore the design and function of plant root systems.|
|Alternation of Generations: The Gametophyte and Sporophyte||Discover the basics of a plant's life cycle.|
|Flowers: Structure and Function of Male & Female Components||Find out about the parts of a flower and learn how each part functions.|
|A Fern Life Cycle: Plant Reproduction Without Flowers or Seeds||Study how plants that have no seeds or flowers reproduce.|
|A Gymnosperm Life Cycle: Reproduction of Plants with 'Naked Seeds'||Take a look at how gymnosperms reproduce.|
|An Angiosperm Life Cycle: Flowering Plant Reproduction||Discover the reproduction cycle of plants with flowers.|
|Asexual Plant Reproduction: Vegetative Propagation and Bulbs||See how asexual plants reproduce.|
|Tropisms: Phototropic, Geotropic and Thigmotropic Plant Growth||Explore how plants can interact and respond to changes within their environment.|
|Seasonal Growth Cycles: Perennial, Annual and Biennial Plants||Study the different types of seasonal growth cycles in plants.|
1. Classification of Vascular, Nonvascular, Monocot & Dicot Plants
Plants may not seem like the most interesting things around, but they are definitely useful. In this lesson, we will explore the basic classification of plants and the unique characteristics of each group.
2. Structure of Plant Stems: Vascular and Ground Tissue
You can determine the age of a tree by looking at its rings. In this lesson, we will look at the basic structures of stems and explore what causes the rings in a tree trunk.
3. Apical Meristem & Primary Shoot System Growth
Just like humans, plants need to grow. In this lesson, you'll see how plant growth occurs at specific locations and how the height of the plant is increased.
4. Lateral Meristem & Secondary Shoot System Growth
Why do some plants experience a secondary growth? Why do some plants grow only in height but others grow in height and width? Discover the answers to these questions in this lesson.
5. Structure of Leaves: The Epidermis, Palisade and Spongy Layers
Leaves may look pretty in the fall when they are changing colors, but they also provide many necessary functions for plants. In this lesson, we will explore the structures and functions of leaves.
6. Primary Root Tissue, Root Hairs and the Plant Vascular Cylinder
Roots of plants can provide support, food and water. We will look at diagrams and photos to see the different parts of roots in order to explain these different functions.
7. Root System Growth: The Root Cap, Primary Roots & Lateral Roots
It is easy to see some plants get taller, but it is important to know that plants must also have a strong support that we cannot always see. Root growth helps plants survive and can happen in two ways.
8. Flowers: Structure and Function of Male & Female Components
In this lesson, we'll look at the parts of a flower and learn their functions. These natural beauties provide indispensable services to the plants they adorn.
9. Alternation of Generations: The Gametophyte and Sporophyte
Even though many plants seem simple, they often have very complex life cycles. We will look at how plants alternate between different life stages as well as the terms used to describe these unique points in their life cycle.
10. A Moss Life Cycle: Dominant Gametophyte
Mosses are unique because they spend most of their lives with only one set of genetic material rather than the normal two sets. We will look at this cycle and how the alternation of generations takes place in these non-vascular plants.
11. A Fern Life Cycle: Plant Reproduction Without Flowers or Seeds
Ferns are able to reproduce without using seeds. We will look at how ferns reproduce as well as the pattern of alternating between diploid and haploid life stages.
12. A Gymnosperm Life Cycle: Reproduction of Plants with 'Naked Seeds'
Some plants, such as pine trees, are able to reproduce with unprotected seeds. We will look at the major structures involved in this form of alternation of generations in gymnosperms.
13. An Angiosperm Life Cycle: Flowering Plant Reproduction
When you think of how plants reproduce, you probably think of flowers. We will look at how flowering plants use specialized reproductive structures to complete an alternation of generations life cycle.
14. Asexual Plant Reproduction: Vegetative Propagation and Bulbs
Not all plants make attractive flowers in order to reproduce. Some plants will not make seeds and pollen either. These plants have other ways to create new offspring. We will look at a few key methods of vegetative propagation.
15. Tropisms: Phototropic, Geotropic and Thigmotropic Plant Growth
Animals aren't the only things that can respond to the environment. While plants may seem inanimate at times, they, too, can respond to the environment in order to better survive.
16. Seasonal Growth Cycles: Perennial, Annual and Biennial Plants
We continue to grow and change throughout our entire lives, living through many seasons and years. Plants have different patterns of growth and development regarding seasons, which we will look at in this lesson.
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