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- Discuss the diversity and characteristics of vertebrates.
- Take a look at jawless craniates.
- Explain how jaws evolved in vertebrates by looking at fish and sharks.
- Learn how limbs evolved in vertebrates and how they allowed for life on land.
- Describe the characteristics of amniotes and explain how these characteristics are a testament to evolution in vertebrates.
- Discuss the characteristics of primates and the common origin of humans.
1. Vertebrates: Origin, Characteristics & Diversity
Vertebrates are diverse and widespread across Earth, but this was not always the case. In this lesson you'll learn about the origins and evolution of these animals, as well as explore their vast diversity.
2. Jawless Craniates: Class Myxini & Class Petromyzontida
The word 'fish' brings specific images to mind. But before these fish existed, there were the jawless craniates. In this lesson you will identify two classes that fall into this category: the hagfishes and the lampreys.
3. Fishes and Sharks: Origins of Jaws in Vertebrates
While it may appear to be a minor feature, the hinged jaw led to major changes in the evolution of animals. In this lesson, you'll discover some of the earliest jawed animals, the sharks and fishes of the world.
4. Tetrapods: Development of Limbs in Vertebrates
Having four limbs allowed for an incredible amount of diversification in the animal kingdom. But where did those limbs come from, and what types of diversifications arose from animals moving onto land?
5. Amniotes: Definition and Evolutionary Characteristics
One of the more 'recent' evolutionary developments in vertebrates is a terrestrial egg. This adaptation allowed for even greater diversity in this branch of the Animal Kingdom, giving rise to organisms that could now live their entire lives on land.
6. Primates and Human Origin
You probably know that you are a primate, just like gorillas and monkeys. But you may be surprised to find out how long primates have been around and how many of them are still living on Earth, which are covered in this lesson.
7. Amphibian Life Cycle
Have your ever looked at a frog and wondered how it came to be? How did it go from an egg, to the frog you may see hopping around a lake? In this lesson you will learn about the amphibian life cycle and the process that takes an amphibian from an egg to fully a developed organism using the frog as an example.
8. Amphibian Reproduction
Amphibians are organisms that spend part of their lives developing in water before they're able to live on both land and in water. This unique ecological characteristic means they have a different reproductive strategy than humans.
9. Amphibians: Circulatory System
Amphibians use a double circulation system, but what does that mean? As an organism suited to live both on land and in water, amphibians have unique ecological characteristics. Learn more in this lesson!
10. Amphibians: Excretory System
Like all animals, amphibians need a way to remove waste materials from their body so it doesn't build up and become toxic. The amphibian excretory system is similar to other vertebrates, but read this lesson to learn more.
11. Cutaneous Respiration in Amphibians
Amphibians have a specialized method of breathing through their skin called cutaneous respiration. This lesson will walk us through its definition, relation to lung breathing, function, and adaptive nature in amphibian groups.
12. Pneumatic Bones in Birds
In this lesson, we'll discuss pneumatic bones in birds. What are pneumatic bones, how are they structured, and why are they so important to avian anatomy and the process of flight?
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