About This Chapter
Who's it for?
Anyone who needs help learning or mastering microbiology material will benefit from taking this course. You will be able to grasp the subject matter faster, retain critical knowledge longer and earn better grades. You're in the right place if you:
- Have fallen behind in understanding the classification, life cycle and structure of viruses.
- Need an efficient way to learn about viruses.
- Learn best with engaging auditory and visual tools.
- Struggle with learning disabilities or learning differences, including autism and ADHD.
- Experience difficulty understanding your teachers.
- Missed class time and need to catch up.
- Can't access extra science learning resources at school.
How it works:
- Start at the beginning, or identify the topics that you need help with.
- Watch and learn from fun videos, reviewing as needed.
- Refer to the video transcripts to reinforce your learning.
- Test your understanding of each lesson with short quizzes.
- Submit questions to one of our instructors for personalized support if you need extra help.
- Verify you're ready by completing the Introduction to Viruses chapter exam.
Why it works:
- Study Efficiently: Skip what you know, review what you don't.
- Retain What You Learn: Engaging animations and real-life examples make topics easy to grasp.
- Be Ready on Test Day: Use the Introduction to Viruses chapter exam to be prepared.
- Get Extra Support: Ask our subject-matter experts any relevant question. They're here to help!
- Study With Flexibility: Watch videos on any web-ready device.
Students will review:
In this chapter, you'll learn the answers to questions including:
- What is the definition and basic structure of a virus?
- What are the different shapes of a virus?
- How does a virus attack, replicate and survive?
- How are individual viruses classified?
- How do DNA and RNA viruses replicate?
- How do viruses mutate?
1. What Are Viruses? - Definition, Structure & Function
In this lesson, you'll learn some historical facts about viruses and the material they are composed of. Find out more as we review the capsid, nucleic acids, the viral envelope, viruses, virions, bacteriophages and virology.
2. Shapes of a Virus: Helical, Icosahedral, Prolate, Complex & Enveloped
Learn about the different shapes viruses can have, such as helical, icosahedral, prolate, complex and enveloped. Find out why one shape is particularly useful from an energetic standpoint.
3. The Life Cycle of a Virus: How Viruses Live, Attack & Replicate
Find out how viruses infect and replicate as we explore the important steps of the virus life cycle, including attachment, uncoating, penetration, replication, and release, as well as the lysogenic and lytic cycles.
4. Classification of Viruses: Viral Genome and Replication Scheme
Find out how viruses are classified based on their being double-stranded, single-stranded, positive-sense, negative-sense, or by having something called reverse transcriptase.
5. Replication of DNA Viruses
This lesson will give you a basic overview of how DNA viruses replicate inside of a host cell. We will cover the entry, integration, replication and release of DNA viruses.
6. Replication of RNA Viruses
This lesson will give you a basic overview of how different types of RNA viruses replicate inside of an animal cell. We will cover the essence of being double-stranded and retroviruses, as well as positive-and negative-sense RNA viruses.
7. How Viruses Mutate: Antigenic Drift and Antigenic Shift
This lesson will discuss the major ways by which viruses, notably the flu virus, mutates. We will talk about recombination, reassortment, antigenic drift, antigenic shift, and more!
8. Viruses: Bacteriophage Lytic and Lysogenic Cycles
Viruses are generally not only our enemy but also the enemy of many other organisms. Bacteriophages are viruses that infect specific bacteria. In this lesson, we'll discuss their basic structure and infection cycle.
9. Flu Viruses, HIV and Immune System Evasion
Why is it that our immune systems can protect us from some viruses but not others? We've eradicated smallpox by using vaccines, so why do influenza and HIV remain such dangerous health risks? In this lesson about viruses, we'll explore these questions and learn how influenza and HIV continue to evade the human immune system.
10. Antigen: Meaning & Explanation
Antigens are invaders that sneak into our bodies and can possibly cause us harm; however, they trigger our immune system, which fights them off. This lesson explains antigens and some of the processes that go along with them.
11. Capsid: Definition, Function & Structure
Viruses cause diseases and they like to stick around long past the point we want them to. Viruses like to stay around so they can multiply. One way they accomplish this is through capsids. In this lesson learn about capsids and their function.
12. Hyperpyrexia: Definition, Causes & Symptoms
Explore how the body regulates temperature, see what causes changes in this regulation, and learn what happens when this regulation is no longer effective. The lesson includes a short quiz at the end.
13. What Is Acyclovir? - Uses & Side Effects
Acyclovir is one of many drugs used to treat viral infections. Explore the different ways this drug is used to treat viruses, and read about the common side effects.
14. Common Cold Virus: Structure and Function
The common cold is one of life's greatest mysteries. It seems it can be accused of causing a myriad of problems, but it's most pervasive role is that of an incurable virus. We explore the structure and function here.
15. Dengue Virus: Structure and Function
Dengue viruses are spread by mosquitos and can cause a deadly hemorrhagic fever or a milder illness. This lesson covers the differences between the types dengue viruses and how they cause disease.
16. Ebola Virus: Structure and Function
Ebola is a virus that causes severe, often fatal disease. It is a filovirus, meaning it looks like a thread when viewed with an electron microscope. Various viral proteins help replicate the RNA genome and make new viral particles.
17. H1N1 Virus Structure and Virus
The H1N1 virus can cause quite serious illness, and even death. This lesson will describe H1N1's viral proteins and how they to work together in an infected cell to replicate and produce more viruses.
18. HIV Virus: Structure and Function
HIV is a virus that attacks human immune cells. It has a complicated life cycle, with its information being stored as RNA, then transferred to DNA, before new viral particles are made. Learn how HIV proteins work to move HIV through its life cycle.
19. HPV Virus: Structure and Function
We encounter viruses in our everyday life, some being worse than others. In this lesson, you will learn about the function and structure of HPV, including how it is transmitted and symptoms to look for.
20. Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) Test: Definition & Procedure
The detection of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) can mean the difference between life and death in patients at risk for prostate cancer. So why is the PSA test under scrutiny? In this lesson, we'll define the prostate-specific antigen test and explain its procedure.
21. What is an Antigen-Presenting Cell? - Definition & Types
Antigen-presenting cells (APCs) help start the body's immune response against infection by finding and activating T cells. This lesson will discuss how the APCs do this, and how the T cells respond.
22. Acute Viral Infections: Symptoms & Treatment
In this lesson, we'll explain what acute viral infections are and look at three examples. For each example, we'll explore the symptoms patients experience and the treatment they need to destroy the virus.
23. What is Phage Therapy?
What do we usually use to kill bacteria? If you answered antibiotics, you're right. But did you know there's perhaps an even better alternative? Phage therapy may be your best friend in the future.
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Other chapters within the Microbiology: Help and Review course
- Biology Basics for Microbiology: Help and Review
- Microbiology Basics: Help and Review
- Bacterial Biology: Help and Review
- Microbiology Laboratory Techniques: Help and Review
- Microorganisms and the Environment: Help and Review
- The Disease Process: Help and Review
- DNA Viruses: Help and Review
- RNA Viruses: Help and Review
- Protozoan Diseases: Help and Review
- Fungal Infections: Help and Review
- Gastrointestinal Tract Illnesses & Infections: Help & Review
- Sexually Transmitted Bacterial Diseases: Help and Review
- Bloodborne Bacterial Diseases: Help and Review
- Bacterial Diseases of the Respiratory Tract: Help and Review
- Bacterial Skin and Wound Infections: Help and Review
- Immunology And the Body's Defenses Against Pathogens: Help and Review
- Antimicrobial Drugs: Help and Review
- Food and Industrial Microbiology: Help and Review
- Sterilization and Antiseptic Techniques: Help and Review