About This Chapter
How it works:
- Identify which concepts are covered on your viruses homework.
- Find videos on those topics within this chapter.
- Watch fun videos, pausing and reviewing as needed.
- Complete sample questions and get instant feedback.
- Finish your viruses homework with ease!
Topics from your homework you'll be able to complete:
- Structure and function of viruses
- Shapes and life cycle of a virus
- Virus classifications
- Replication of DNA and RNA viruses
- Virus mutation process
- Flu viruses, HIV and immune system evasion
1. What Are Viruses? - Definition, Structure & Function
In this lesson, you'll learn some historical facts about viruses and the material they are composed of. Find out more as we review the capsid, nucleic acids, the viral envelope, viruses, virions, bacteriophages and virology.
2. Shapes of a Virus: Helical, Icosahedral, Prolate, Complex & Enveloped
Learn about the different shapes viruses can have, such as helical, icosahedral, prolate, complex and enveloped. Find out why one shape is particularly useful from an energetic standpoint.
3. The Life Cycle of a Virus: How Viruses Live, Attack & Replicate
Find out how viruses infect and replicate as we explore the important steps of the virus life cycle, including attachment, uncoating, penetration, replication, and release, as well as the lysogenic and lytic cycles.
4. Classification of Viruses: Viral Genome and Replication Scheme
Find out how viruses are classified based on their being double-stranded, single-stranded, positive-sense, negative-sense, or by having something called reverse transcriptase.
5. Replication of DNA Viruses
This lesson will give you a basic overview of how DNA viruses replicate inside of a host cell. We will cover the entry, integration, replication and release of DNA viruses.
6. Replication of RNA Viruses
This lesson will give you a basic overview of how different types of RNA viruses replicate inside of an animal cell. We will cover the essence of being double-stranded and retroviruses, as well as positive-and negative-sense RNA viruses.
7. How Viruses Mutate: Antigenic Drift and Antigenic Shift
This lesson will discuss the major ways by which viruses, notably the flu virus, mutates. We will talk about recombination, reassortment, antigenic drift, antigenic shift, and more!
8. Viruses: Bacteriophage Lytic and Lysogenic Cycles
Viruses are generally not only our enemy but also the enemy of many other organisms. Bacteriophages are viruses that infect specific bacteria. In this lesson, we'll discuss their basic structure and infection cycle.
9. Flu Viruses, HIV and Immune System Evasion
Why is it that our immune systems can protect us from some viruses but not others? We've eradicated smallpox by using vaccines, so why do influenza and HIV remain such dangerous health risks? In this lesson about viruses, we'll explore these questions and learn how influenza and HIV continue to evade the human immune system.
10. Antigenic Shift: Definition & Concept
Antigens are distinguishing features that our immune systems use to recognize and remember invaders. Microbes can evade our immune defenses by changing their antigens. In this lesson, learn about antigenic shift with influenza virus as an example.
11. What Is Conjunctivitis? - Causes, Symptoms & Treatment
I bet you've had conjunctivitis before! Most kids have experienced this disease at one point in time. It's more commonly known as 'pink eye.' Read this lesson to learn its causes, review its symptoms, and find out how to treat it!
12. What Is Mono? - Definition, Causes, Symptoms & Treatment
Learn about infectious mononucleosis in this lesson, aka 'the kissing disease.' Find out more about the causes, symptoms and treatments of mono in this lesson.
13. What Is Pharyngitis? - Definition, Causes, Symptoms & Treatment
Pharyngitis is the inflammation of the pharynx. The pharynx is the throat. Normally the throat is moist, clear, and painless. If the suffix of a word ends in the letters 'itis' it is indicative of inflammation.
14. Influenza Virus: Structure and Function
The influenza virus is infamous for causing worldwide flu epidemics each year. It can mutate, making vaccine development challenging. Learn more here and quiz yourself.
15. Measles Virus: Structure and Function
The measles virus, which had become extremely uncommon in developed countries, is making a comeback. It is a very contagious virus. This lesson will discuss the proteins involved in helping the measles virus complete its life cycle.
16. Mumps Virus: Structure and Function
This lesson discusses the structure and function of the virus that causes mumps. Following the lesson there will be quiz questions so that you can see how much you have learned.
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