About This Chapter
Keystone Biology Exam: Cell Growth and Reproduction - Chapter Summary
The video lessons in this chapter prepare you for questions on the Keystone Biology exam dealing with cellular structures and processes. Going over these lessons can help you to refresh your knowledge of familiar subjects while also covering any holes in your understanding. After completing this chapter, you'll have bolstered your comprehension of:
- Chromosome structure and physical features
- The Cell cycle
- DNA packaging and chromosome condensation
- Mitosis I and II
- Meiosis I and II
- Asexual and sexual reproduction
- Nondisjunction and aneuploidy
- DNA replication
Professional instructors guide you through each topic and there is a self-assessment quiz included at the end of every lesson so that you can track your progress and familiarize yourself with the types of questions you may encounter on the exam. You can navigate through the lessons using the timeline feature, which will also allow you to jump to important points within the video for additional review.
Keystone Biology Exam: Cell Growth and Reproduction Chapter Objectives
The Keystone Biology exam is designed to measure your understanding of several subjects within biology through both multiple-choice questions and written answers. Topics covered include basic biological principles, the chemical basis for life, bioenergetics, homeostasis and transport, cell growth and reproduction, genetics, theory of evolution, and ecology. This chapter will help you prepare for the portion of the test focused on cell growth and reproduction, with thorough and time-efficient lessons zeroing in on the cellular processes and definitions you'll want to be ready for going into the test.
1. Basic Genetics: The Genome & Chromosomes
There are approximately 3 billion bases in the human genome. In this lesson, you'll learn more about the genome and its organization into chromosomes. We think about DNA often as the blueprint for life, but we can also think of it as the recipe for life with the nucleus being the library.
2. How is DNA Organized into Chromosomes? - Structure & Function
Explore the structure of chromosomes and see how DNA fits inside the nucleus of the cell. In this lesson, you'll learn about histones, chromatin and nucleosomes.
3. The Cell Cycle: Definition, Phases & Sequence
Learn about the dividing and non-dividing states of the cell and discover the different phases of the cell cycle, including interphase, cytokinesis, and the stages of cell division.
4. How is DNA Packaged? - Chromosome Condensation & Karyograms
Learn how DNA packaging makes it possible to fit approximately seven feet of DNA inside a single cell. You'll see how chromosome condensation helps cells get ready for cell division.
5. Parts of a Chromosome & Their Roles
Learn all about chromosomes, including the different parts of a chromosome and the types of chromosomes in diploid organisms like humans. Learn the vocab used with chromosomes.
6. Mitotic Spindle: Definition, Formation & Function
Condensation makes DNA ready / And microtubules hold it steady / A microtubule's a fancy rope / To move the DNA is the hope / From spindle poles they do extend / To align each chromosome in the end
7. Stages of Mitosis: Description & Sequence
Let's take a second look at mitosis and focus on the phases of chromosome segregation. As we concentrate on chromosomes, you'll learn the tricky dance that takes place through all five phases of mitosis.
8. Cytokinesis: Animal Versus Plant Cells
What's a cell to do when it must divide in two? We'll explore cytokinesis and see how the process can differ in important ways when it comes to plant versus animal cells.
9. Meiosis: Comparison to Mitosis, Crossing Over & Process
Welcome to meiosis, a realm of division doubled for reproduction untroubled. You'll get a preview of both divisions of meiosis and see what it takes to go from a diploid cell to a haploid gamete.
10. Meiosis I Stages: Prophase I, Metaphase I, Anaphase I & Telophase I
How does meiosis keep track of homologs and reduce the genome by half? Know these answers and more as we navigate the steps of meiosis I. This lesson will be tetradical!
11. Meiosis II: Definition, Stages & Comparison to Meiosis I
Behold round two of meiotic cell division! You'll see how meiosis II keeps the genome intact and gives the final push to produce haploid gametes, which make the world go round.
12. Asexual vs. Sexual Reproduction: Comparison & Characteristics
Did you know that some organisms can reproduce without a mate? Check out this video lesson on asexual versus sexual reproduction to discover the different ways organisms can reproduce and the main differences between mitosis and meiosis.
13. Types of Asexual Reproduction
If an organism comes from a single parent, then it reproduced asexually. This results in genetically identical offspring. Learn about different types of asexual reproduction, such as binary fission, fragmentation, budding and vegetative propagation.
14. Nondisjunction & Aneuploidy: Definition & Examples
Learn why proper chromosome segregation is essential during meiosis. We'll see how having an extra chromosome can lead to Down Syndrome and also examine the consequences of having too few chromosomes. Disruptions to the delicate balance of cell division can have far-reaching effects.
15. What Is DNA Replication? - Conservative, Semi-Conservative & Dispersive Models
How do we know that DNA replication is semi-conservative? How do we know it's not conservative or dispersive? Let's follow the famous experiment by Meselson and Stahl to find out!
16. How Helicase Unwinds the DNA Double Helix in Preparation for Replication
How does semi-conservative replication begin? Discover how DNA helicase creates a replication fork to unwind the complicated DNA molecule and allow daughter strands to form on the parental template.
17. How DNA Polymerase and RNA Primase Initiate DNA Replication
How do enzymes assist in starting DNA replication? In this lesson, we explore the work of a contributing enzyme, DNA polymerase, and learn how the RNA primer is made by the action of RNA primase.
18. DNA Replication: The Leading Strand and DNA Polymerase Activities
How does replication occur in the antiparallel DNA molecule? In this lesson, explore the significance of the leading and lagging strands, and learn how Okazaki fragments and RNA ligase make DNA replication possible.
19. DNA Replication: Review of Enzymes, Replication Bubbles & Leading and Lagging Strands
Feeling lost in the thorny details of DNA replication? This lesson provides an overview of semi-conservative replication, with a focus on putting together all of the concepts involved. We'll review the work of each enzyme on our way to completing the big picture of DNA replication.
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Other chapters within the Pennsylvania Biology Keystone Exam: Test Prep & Practice course
- Keystone Biology Exam: Basic Biological Concepts
- Keystone Biology Exam: The Chemical Basis of Life
- Keystone Biology Exam: Understanding Enzymes
- Keystone Biology Exam: Bioenergetics
- Keystone Biology Exam: Internal Homeostasis & Transportation
- Keystone Biology Exam: Understanding Genetics
- Keystone Biology Exam: Cell Transcription & Translation
- Keystone Biology Exam: DNA Technology & Genomics
- Keystone Biology Exam: The Theory of Evolution
- Keystone Biology Exam: Ecology
- Pennsylvania Biology Keystone Exam Flashcards