About This Chapter
Keystone Biology Exam: Cell Transcription & Translation - Chapter Summary
These lessons feature our professional instructors discussing the different processes and functions of cell transcription and translation, including cellular protein synthesis and the central dogma. Follow along with these videos to review for questions on the Keystone Biology exam regarding:
- Gene expression regulation and the transcription of mRNA from DNA
- Operon controls over transcription in prokaryotic cells
- RNA processing in eukaryotic cells
- Genetic codes and translating RNA into amino acids
- Codon recognition and making sense of genetic code
- Roles of tRNA and anticodons in the interpretation of genetic code
- Genetic translation and the roles of ribosomes and peptide bonds
- Steps in translating mRNA to proteins
After watching these lesson videos, you may reinforce your understanding of the material by reading the lesson transcripts. If at any point during this chapter you develop a question, be sure to send it to our instructors for clarification. Once you've finished a lesson, take its quiz to test your understanding of the material presented in it, then use the video tags to return to and review the parts of the lesson that explained the topics you missed.
Keystone Biology Exam: Cell Transcription & Translation Objectives
Pennsylvania schools administer the Keystone Biology exam to assess if their students are meeting the state educational standards for biology. This exam is composed of a series of multiple-choice and constructed-response questions that assess your knowledge of biology in two modules. In addition to your coursework, use this chapter to review the structures and processes of cell transcription and translations to help you prepare for questions on the Keystone Biology exam about cell transcription and translation.
1. Protein Synthesis in the Cell and the Central Dogma
Learn the story of the central dogma and how it relates to protein synthesis. We'll use a simple analogy to explore the roles of transcription and translation in building protein from the DNA code. In this lesson, we'll also introduce the concept of a gene.
2. Transcription of Messenger RNA (mRNA) from DNA
In this lesson, you will gain a thorough understanding of how transcription works. We will investigate how DNA is transcribed into RNA with the help of a promoter and RNA polymerase. Learn the purpose of messenger RNA and explore the three phases of transcription.
3. Regulation of Gene Expression: Transcriptional Repression and Induction
Do our genes work the same way all the time? How do we regulate the expression of our genes? Explore the various ways organisms control gene transcription through repression and induction of operons.
4. How An Operon Controls Transcription in a Prokaryotic Cell
Is gene regulation really as simple as flipping a switch? What are the parts of an operon, and how do they function to control gene transcription? We'll study the lac operon to answer these questions.
5. RNA Processing in a Eukaryotic Cell: Splicing of Introns & Exons
In this lesson, we'll explore the unique considerations for gene regulation in the eukaryotic cell. We'll walk through RNA splicing of introns and exons and the addition of the 5' cap and poly(A) tail.
6. What Is the Genetic Code That Translates RNA Into Amino Acids?
How is RNA translated into a series of amino acids? Learn the language of the genetic code, explore a codon dictionary, and discover some basics of genetics in this lesson on translation.
7. Making Sense of the Genetic Code: Codon Recognition
Explore the genetic code and how it is translated into a polypeptide. We'll practice using the RNA codon chart and learn the basics of codon recognition.
8. Codon Recognition: How tRNA and Anticodons Interpret the Genetic Code
How does codon recognition work at the molecular level? Can you use tRNA and anticodons to decipher the genetic code? Learn the mechanics of codon recognition and build a polypeptide from a sample genetic code.
9. The Role of Ribosomes and Peptide Bonds in Genetic Translation
Ribosomes play a major role in the process of genetic translation. In this lesson, learn about the structure of ribosomes and how peptide bonds help to create chains of amino acids.
10. Translation of mRNA to Protein: Initiation, Elongation & Termination Steps
Translation, the second part of the central dogma of molecular biology, describes how the genetic code is used to make amino acid chains. In this lesson, explore the mechanics involved in polypeptide synthesis. Learn the three major steps of translation as you watch tRNA, mRNA, and ribosomes go to work.
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Other chapters within the Pennsylvania Biology Keystone Exam: Test Prep & Practice course
- Keystone Biology Exam: Basic Biological Concepts
- Keystone Biology Exam: The Chemical Basis of Life
- Keystone Biology Exam: Understanding Enzymes
- Keystone Biology Exam: Bioenergetics
- Keystone Biology Exam: Internal Homeostasis & Transportation
- Keystone Biology Exam: Cell Growth & Reproduction
- Keystone Biology Exam: Understanding Genetics
- Keystone Biology Exam: DNA Technology & Genomics
- Keystone Biology Exam: The Theory of Evolution
- Keystone Biology Exam: Ecology
- Pennsylvania Biology Keystone Exam Flashcards