Ch 8: Keystone Biology Exam: Cell Transcription & Translation

About This Chapter

As you study for the Keystone Biology exam use the lessons of this chapter to help you review the cellular functions and structures involved in cell transcription and translation. This chapter includes engaging videos, as well as text lessons and self-assessment quizzes, to help you prepare for the exam.

Keystone Biology Exam: Cell Transcription & Translation - Chapter Summary

These lessons feature our professional instructors discussing the different processes and functions of cell transcription and translation, including cellular protein synthesis and the central dogma. Follow along with these videos to review for questions on the Keystone Biology exam regarding:

  • Gene expression regulation and the transcription of mRNA from DNA
  • Operon controls over transcription in prokaryotic cells
  • RNA processing in eukaryotic cells
  • Genetic codes and translating RNA into amino acids
  • Codon recognition and making sense of genetic code
  • Roles of tRNA and anticodons in the interpretation of genetic code
  • Genetic translation and the roles of ribosomes and peptide bonds
  • Steps in translating mRNA to proteins

After watching these lesson videos, you may reinforce your understanding of the material by reading the lesson transcripts. If at any point during this chapter you develop a question, be sure to send it to our instructors for clarification. Once you've finished a lesson, take its quiz to test your understanding of the material presented in it, then use the video tags to return to and review the parts of the lesson that explained the topics you missed.

Keystone Biology Exam: Cell Transcription & Translation Objectives

Pennsylvania schools administer the Keystone Biology exam to assess if their students are meeting the state educational standards for biology. This exam is composed of a series of multiple-choice and constructed-response questions that assess your knowledge of biology in two modules. In addition to your coursework, use this chapter to review the structures and processes of cell transcription and translations to help you prepare for questions on the Keystone Biology exam about cell transcription and translation.

10 Lessons in Chapter 8: Keystone Biology Exam: Cell Transcription & Translation
Test your knowledge with a 30-question chapter practice test
Protein Synthesis in the Cell and the Central Dogma

1. Protein Synthesis in the Cell and the Central Dogma

Learn the story of the central dogma and how it relates to protein synthesis. We'll use a simple analogy to explore the roles of transcription and translation in building protein from the DNA code. In this lesson, we'll also introduce the concept of a gene.

Transcription of Messenger RNA (mRNA) from DNA

2. Transcription of Messenger RNA (mRNA) from DNA

In this lesson, you will gain a thorough understanding of how transcription works. We will investigate how DNA is transcribed into RNA with the help of a promoter and RNA polymerase. Learn the purpose of messenger RNA and explore the three phases of transcription.

Regulation of Gene Expression: Transcriptional Repression and Induction

3. Regulation of Gene Expression: Transcriptional Repression and Induction

Do our genes work the same way all the time? How do we regulate the expression of our genes? Explore the various ways organisms control gene transcription through repression and induction of operons.

How An Operon Controls Transcription in a Prokaryotic Cell

4. How An Operon Controls Transcription in a Prokaryotic Cell

Is gene regulation really as simple as flipping a switch? What are the parts of an operon, and how do they function to control gene transcription? We'll study the lac operon to answer these questions.

RNA Processing in a Eukaryotic Cell: Splicing of Introns & Exons

5. RNA Processing in a Eukaryotic Cell: Splicing of Introns & Exons

In this lesson, we'll explore the unique considerations for gene regulation in the eukaryotic cell. We'll walk through RNA splicing of introns and exons and the addition of the 5' cap and poly(A) tail.

What Is the Genetic Code That Translates RNA Into Amino Acids?

6. What Is the Genetic Code That Translates RNA Into Amino Acids?

How is RNA translated into a series of amino acids? Learn the language of the genetic code, explore a codon dictionary, and discover some basics of genetics in this lesson on translation.

Making Sense of the Genetic Code: Codon Recognition

7. Making Sense of the Genetic Code: Codon Recognition

Explore the genetic code and how it is translated into a polypeptide. We'll practice using the RNA codon chart and learn the basics of codon recognition.

Codon Recognition: How tRNA and Anticodons Interpret the Genetic Code

8. Codon Recognition: How tRNA and Anticodons Interpret the Genetic Code

How does codon recognition work at the molecular level? Can you use tRNA and anticodons to decipher the genetic code? Learn the mechanics of codon recognition and build a polypeptide from a sample genetic code.

The Role of Ribosomes and Peptide Bonds in Genetic Translation

9. The Role of Ribosomes and Peptide Bonds in Genetic Translation

Ribosomes play a major role in the process of genetic translation. In this lesson, learn about the structure of ribosomes and how peptide bonds help to create chains of amino acids.

Translation of mRNA to Protein: Initiation, Elongation & Termination Steps

10. Translation of mRNA to Protein: Initiation, Elongation & Termination Steps

Translation, the second part of the central dogma of molecular biology, describes how the genetic code is used to make amino acid chains. In this lesson, explore the mechanics involved in polypeptide synthesis. Learn the three major steps of translation as you watch tRNA, mRNA, and ribosomes go to work.

Chapter Practice Exam
Test your knowledge of this chapter with a 30 question practice chapter exam.
Not Taken
Practice Final Exam
Test your knowledge of the entire course with a 50 question practice final exam.
Not Taken

Earning College Credit

Did you know… We have over 200 college courses that prepare you to earn credit by exam that is accepted by over 1,500 colleges and universities. You can test out of the first two years of college and save thousands off your degree. Anyone can earn credit-by-exam regardless of age or education level.

To learn more, visit our Earning Credit Page

Transferring credit to the school of your choice

Not sure what college you want to attend yet? Study.com has thousands of articles about every imaginable degree, area of study and career path that can help you find the school that's right for you.

Support