About This Chapter
Keystone Biology Exam: Ecology - Chapter Summary
Use these lessons to review the different types, characteristics and levels of ecosystems. In them, our expert instructors discuss the structures and functions of ecosystems as well as the interactions between different populations of species. Following these lessons you should have a better understanding of:
- Different levels of ecology and ecosystems
- Characteristics of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems
- Trophic levels, food chains and energy flow in ecosystems
- Interspecies competition and niche differentiation
- Predator and prey interactions
- Different types of symbiotic relationships in ecosystems
- Conservation biology and global ecology
- Ecological succession
- Mass cycles in ecosystems, including the water cycle and carbon cycle
- Populations and carrying capacity
- Ecological balance and extinction
In addition to watching these videos, read the lesson transcripts to reinforce your understanding of the material. Then take the lesson quizzes to discover topics you don't understand and access video tags to return to the lessons and study sections that explained the topics you missed. If you have any questions about these topics, be sure to ask our instructors for assistance via the teacher tabs of the lessons.
Keystone Biology Exam: Ecology Chapter Objectives
The Keystone Biology exam is a test used in the state of Pennsylvania to help educational institutions determine the effectiveness of their biology courses. This test is a series of multiple-choice and constructed-response questions and is broken into two modules. This chapter has been composed to help you review material about ecology which you may have covered in class and will see again on the Keystone Biology exam.
1. The Environment, Levels of Ecology and Ecosystems
Do you know the difference between an environment and an ecosystem? In this lesson, you'll find out what makes an environment, and what makes an ecosystem. You'll also learn what ecology is and some of the ways that scientists study ecology using organisms, populations, communities, ecosystems and even the entire biosphere.
2. Aquatic Ecosystems: Characteristics & Definition
Aquatic ecosystems are fascinating, complex, and filled with interconnected parts. Read this lesson to learn some of the secrets hiding beneath the surface of your favorite lake, river, pond, or sea. I promise it's worth the read!
3. What is a Terrestrial Ecosystem? - Definition, Examples & Types
There are a variety of different ecosystems all over the world. In this lesson, we will examine terrestrial ecosystems. This will allow us to gain an understanding of the living and non-living factors that makeup these dynamic ecosystems.
4. Food Chains, Trophic Levels and Energy Flow in an Ecosystem
In this lesson, you'll learn about food chains, food webs, and the different roles that organisms play in an ecosystem. You'll also learn about how energy flows through an ecosystem.
5. Interspecific Competition, Competitive Exclusion & Niche Differentiation
What happens when two similar species that consume the same resources occupy the same space? Interspecific competition, that's what! Watch our video lesson to learn about the outcomes of this ecological battle.
6. Predator/Prey Interactions, Camouflage, Mimicry & Warning Coloration
You probably know that skunks can be quite stinky, bees sting and monarch butterflies are pretty, but do you know why? This lesson will introduce you to the reasons why some animals look or act the way they do and how these things relate to the predator/prey relationship.
7. Symbiotic Relationships: Mutualism, Commensalism & Parasitism
If your cat or dog has ever had fleas, you've witnessed symbiosis in action. In this lesson, learn the many types of symbiosis in biology, and how these relationships can have a positive, negative, or neutral effect on the individual species.
8. Global Ecology: Definition and Overview
A large oil spill in the middle of the ocean and the release of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere are examples of environmental problems that can influence the entire planet. This lesson will explore the study of environmental problems occurring on a global scale, including the impact of globalization and current major global environmental problems.
9. Conservation Biology, Habitat Fragmentation, and Metapopulations
It's becoming harder to conserve large, unbroken tracts of wilderness. Is there another way for conservation biologists to ensure the survival of a species? In this lesson, you'll learn about habitat fragmentation and metapopulations.
10. Ecological Succession: From Pioneer to Climax Communities
Just as people grow and change so, too, do ecosystems. Watch this lesson to learn about ecological succession from the beginning stages of development to a community's ultimate destination, or climax.
11. The Water Cycle: Precipitation, Condensation, and Evaporation
This lesson discusses the processes water takes as it moves around the Earth in the water cycle. You'll get an in-depth look at condensation, precipitation, and evaporation.
12. Biogeochemical Cycling and the Phosphorus Cycle
In this video lesson, we'll take a look at how elements large and small use other elements to grow. This is achieved through cycles. We'll look at macronutrients, trace elements and the biogeochemical and phosphorous cycles.
13. The Nitrogen Cycle, Acid Rain and Fossil Fuels
Do you know the difference between nitrite and nitrate? Do you have any clue how all the nitrogen in the atmosphere becomes usable? If you can't answer these questions, then you need to watch this lesson on the nitrogen cycle.
14. The Carbon Cycle and Long-Term Carbon Storage
All living organisms have a role in the carbon cycle. Do you know you understand how humans, animals and plants use carbon? This lesson will introduce you to the carbon cycle and explain how it functions on a global scale.
15. How Introduced and Invasive Species Alter Ecological Balance
What happens to your block when a new neighbor moves in? Something changes, right? Now think about that on an ecological scale: what happens to an environment when a new SPECIES moves in?
16. Populations: Density, Survivorship and Life Histories
Have you ever wondered how biologists determine the populations of animals in a particular geographic area? Watch this video lesson to find out, and discover how scientists look at the survivorship and life histories of many different species.
17. Carrying Capacity, Migration & Dispersion
Have you ever wondered why some types of birds fly south in the winter or why some animals form territories? Watch this video to learn about a species' maximum growth capabilities, the way its members group themselves and why they might migrate to new locations every year.
18. What Is Extinction? - Defining Background and Mass Extinction
In this lesson you'll discover what the term 'extinction' means as well as learn the two different types of extinction: mass extinction and background extinction. You will also discover how humans contribute to extinction events.
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Other chapters within the Pennsylvania Biology Keystone Exam: Test Prep & Practice course
- Keystone Biology Exam: Basic Biological Concepts
- Keystone Biology Exam: The Chemical Basis of Life
- Keystone Biology Exam: Understanding Enzymes
- Keystone Biology Exam: Bioenergetics
- Keystone Biology Exam: Internal Homeostasis & Transportation
- Keystone Biology Exam: Cell Growth & Reproduction
- Keystone Biology Exam: Understanding Genetics
- Keystone Biology Exam: Cell Transcription & Translation
- Keystone Biology Exam: DNA Technology & Genomics
- Keystone Biology Exam: The Theory of Evolution
- Pennsylvania Biology Keystone Exam Flashcards