About This Chapter
Keystone Biology Exam: The Theory of Evolution - Chapter Summary
The lessons comprising this chapter are designed to provide an overview of biological, genetic and other components of evolution that are covered on the Keystone Biology exam. You will have the opportunity to learn about theories, evolutionary evidence and population genetics. A successful review of this material should lead to the development of the following abilities:
- Describing population genetics
- Explaining the principles of Darwinian evolution
- Identifying the evidence of evolution as explained in various fields of science
- Exploring the role of adaptation in evolution
- Defining artificial selection and the types of natural selection
- Detailing the three mechanisms of microevolution
- Relating examples of the founder effect
- Exploring how new species are formed
- Discussing generic variability and random mutation
- Applying scientific thinking processes when studying evolution
Examples and illustrations support the narrative text of each lesson, making the material easy and fun to learn. You can gauge your comprehension of these topics by taking the accompanying quizzes, which offer an effective preparation for the actual Keystone Biology exam.
Keystone Biology Exam: The Theory of Evolution Chapter Objectives
The Theory of Evolution chapter focuses on species development and the theoretical and evidence-based explanations of evolution. You may be asked questions regarding this type of information in the continuity and unity of life portion of the exam. This portion, which makes up the second module of the exam, consists of 32 multiple-choice questions and four constructed-response questions. It represents 50% of the entire exam.
Keystone exams are high school assessment exams used in the state of Pennsylvania to evaluate a student's proficiency in various subjects, including biology. These end-of-course exams are part of the state's high school graduation requirements and reflect students' understanding of the state standards within specific subjects. A scoring range of 1500-1548 is considered proficient for the biology exam.
1. Theories of Evolution: Lamarck vs. Darwin
We'll look at the interplay between population genetics and environment. Are traits individually acquired or do entire populations evolve? The flying hamsters and a few other notable experiments will provide the answers.
2. Evidence for Evolution: Paleontology, Biogeography, Embryology, Comparative Anatomy & Molecular Biology
There is much support for the theory of evolution. This evidence comes from a variety of scientific fields and provides information that helps us trace changes in species over time. In this lesson, we'll look at this evidence and explore how it supports the theory of evolution.
3. Natural Selection & Adaptation: Definition, Theory & Examples
How does natural selection help shape the amazing types of animals we witness around us? In this lesson, we'll explore adaptations and what they can tell us about a species' past evolution.
4. Natural Selection: Definition, Types & Examples
We'll take a look at the types of natural selection that can occur. From flying hamsters to moths, you'll start to grasp the different paths organisms can take as they respond to their changing environments over time.
5. Causes of Microevolution: Natural Selection, Gene Flow & Genetic Drift
Environments are dynamic, which causes populations to be as well. In this lesson, you'll learn about microevolution, as well as the mechanisms behind it that cause changes in allele frequencies within populations.
6. Founder Effect: Example & Definition
The founder effect is one way that nature can randomly create new species from existing populations. In this lesson, learn about the founder effect and how it can be seen in all humans across the globe.
7. Speciation: Allopatric and Sympatric Speciation
Discover the definition of a species and learn more about how species split. Find out common terms related to the splitting of species and study what role polyploidy plays in the development of a species.
8. Prezygotic Reproductive Barriers & Speciation: Definition & Examples
We may take for granted why animals choose to mate with other animals of similar appearance, but it's not that simple. There are actually biological barriers to reproduction that can prevent even seemingly closely related species from reproducing. This lesson looks at one such category of hindrances, prezygotic barriers, which make fertilization impossible.
9. Postzygotic Reproductive Barriers: Definition & Examples
Do flying hamsters represent a separate species from your run-of-the-mill hamsters? We'll get to the bottom of this by performing crosses between the two hamster types. You'll explore postzygotic reproductive barriers and their possibly tragic consequences.
10. Genetic Variability and Random Mutation
Evolution is driven by variation among populations. The amount of variability determines how well a population can adapt to environmental changes, while random mutations can provide new variations that help a population adapt to unexpected changes.
11. Artificial Selection in Evolution
Humans have been selectively breeding for desirable traits in plants and animals for a long time. This artificial selection allows for a lot of control in the breeding process but can also lead to unintended mutations within a population of organisms.
12. Applying Scientific Thinking to the Study of Evolution
This lesson outlines the scientific process and how it relates to the study of biological evolution. In this lesson we will cover the steps of the scientific method and discuss the supporting evidence of biological evolution.
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Other chapters within the Pennsylvania Biology Keystone Exam: Test Prep & Practice course
- Keystone Biology Exam: Basic Biological Concepts
- Keystone Biology Exam: The Chemical Basis of Life
- Keystone Biology Exam: Understanding Enzymes
- Keystone Biology Exam: Bioenergetics
- Keystone Biology Exam: Internal Homeostasis & Transportation
- Keystone Biology Exam: Cell Growth & Reproduction
- Keystone Biology Exam: Understanding Genetics
- Keystone Biology Exam: Cell Transcription & Translation
- Keystone Biology Exam: DNA Technology & Genomics
- Keystone Biology Exam: Ecology
- Pennsylvania Biology Keystone Exam Flashcards