About This Chapter
Knowledge of Measurement Theory & Principles - Chapter Summary
In this chapter, you'll learn review various types of assessments and how to determine their validity and reliability. Our instructors will go over ways to understand scores including bell curves, standard deviation, and norm- and criterion-referenced scoring.
Testing bias is explored as are methods of looking at fairness in psychological assessment. Later in the chapter you'll be presented with a thorough analysis of several types of assessment procedures. Completion of these lessons should prepare you to:
- Explain problems and problem-solving strategies
- Describe standardized assessments and differences between formative and summative evaluations
- Name ways to gauge validity of assessments
- Summarize assessment results
- Analyze influences of testing bias, cultural bias and language differences in assessments
- List strengths and limitations of psychological assessment procedures
Our instructors, all professionals in the field, will guide you through these brief, engaging lessons. They've devised quizzes to help you gauge your knowledge, and video tags in the lessons allow you to easily go back and review areas where you need extra help. Every lesson is accompanied by a written transcript with key terms and phrases highlighted.
1. Types of Problems & Problem Solving Strategies
We solve hundreds of small problems everyday. This lesson covers different types of problems, such as routine vs. non-routine, and many of the different problem-solving strategies we use, including algorithms, heuristics, graphic representations and the IDEAL Strategy.
2. Standardized Assessments & Formative vs. Summative Evaluations
If you have ever attended a public school or college you have been subjected to a form of standardized assessment. These assessments serve multiple purposes and provide valuable information regarding one's abilities, understanding and potential. This lesson will introduce you to the types of standardized assessments commonly used in schools and discuss two other types of assessments: formative and summative.
3. Validity in Assessments: Content, Construct & Predictive Validity
Ensuring that an assessment measures what it is intended to measure is a critical component in education. Assessment results are used to predict future achievement and current knowledge. This lesson will define the term validity and differentiate between content, construct, and predictive validity.
4. The Reliability Coefficient and the Reliability of Assessments
How are test scores affected by day-to-day changes of a student? Do different people rate students' performances the same? These questions are addressed through the understanding of reliability. This lesson will define reliability, explain how reliability is measured, and explore methods to enhance reliability of assessments in the classroom.
5. Summarizing Assessment Results: Understanding Basic Statistics of Score Distribution
Summarizing test results is a critical component of the assessment process. In order for results to be used effectively, they must be summarized in a way that allows educators to compare the achievement of one student to others. This lesson will describe the first step in summarizing results: understanding the basic statistics of score distribution.
6. Summarizing Assessment Results: Comparing Test Scores to a Larger Population
Assessment results can yield valuable information about the individual test-taker and the larger population of test-takers. This lesson will describe how to compare test scores to a larger population by explaining standard score, stanines, z-score, percentile rank and cumulative percentage.
7. Using Standard Deviation and Bell Curves for Assessment
When a teacher gives an exam in class, how does she decide if the test scores were good or bad? This lesson focuses on classroom assessment, specifically how to analyze the variability of scores within a given group of students. We'll discuss both standard deviation and bell curves.
8. Norm- vs. Criterion-Referenced Scoring: Advantages & Disadvantages
Assessment results allow educators to make important decisions about students' knowledge, abilities and future educational potential. There are multiple ways to summarize and interpret assessment results. This lesson will discuss ways to summarize norm-referenced assessments and criterion-referenced assessments.
9. Standardized Tests in Education: Advantages and Disadvantages
Standardized tests are used frequently in educational settings. This lesson will help you understand the advantages and disadvantages of these tests and also explore factors that impact standardized test performance.
10. Testing Bias, Cultural Bias & Language Differences in Assessments
Assessments are used to gain useful information about test-takers' knowledge, skills and progress. Sometimes, however, the results of these assessments are incorrect due to biases. This lesson will differentiate and discuss types of testing bias and differences among test-takers that may lead to testing bias.
11. How to Test Fairness in Psychological Measurements
In this lesson, we will look at how to check for fairness in psychological measurements and assess for bias using five relevant considerations. We will also look at the procedures used for eliminating bias and ensuring fairness in testing.
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Other chapters within the Praxis School Psychologist (5402): Practice & Study Guide course
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- Theories of Intelligence
- Developmental Psychology & Measurement
- Assessment & Problem Analysis in School Psychology
- Psychological Assessment of Special Populations
- Psychological Consultation & Collaboration in School Settings
- Developing Academic Skills
- Goal Setting & Student Motivation
- Academic Success & Failure
- Primary, Secondary & Tertiary Preventive Strategies for the Classroom
- School-Based Intervention & Techniques
- Child & Adolescent Psychopathology
- School-wide Practices to Promote Learning
- Preventive & Responsive Schools Services
- Family-School Collaboration Services
- Individual Learning Characteristics
- Effect of Cultural & Background Differences on Education
- Diversity in Development & Learning
- Education Research & Program Evaluation
- Ethical Principles in Psychology
- Legal Issues in Psychology
- Case Law in Education Psychology
- Professional Foundations: Learning Strategies
- Praxis School Psychologist Flashcards