About This Chapter
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- Students who have fallen behind in understanding enzymes, polymers, molecular biology and genetic engineering
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- Find videos in our course that cover what you need to learn or review.
- Press play and watch the video lesson.
- Refer to the video transcripts to reinforce your learning.
- Test your understanding of each lesson with short quizzes.
- Verify you're ready by completing the molecular biology and genetic engineering chapter exam.
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- Study Efficiently: Skip what you know, review what you don't.
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Students will review:
This chapter helps students review the concepts in a molecular biology and genetic engineering unit of a standard high school biology course. Topics covered include:
- Agarose gel electrophoresis
- Bacterial transformation
- Determining the size and visualizing DNA
- DNA sequencing and the Sanger Method
- Polymerase chain reactions (PCR)
1. What is Genetic Engineering? - Definition and Examples
How do we make the insulin used by diabetic patients? In this lesson, you'll learn the basics of how genetic engineering can be used to transform a bacterial host cell into a genetically-modified organism that produces human insulin.
2. What is a DNA Plasmid? - Importance to Genetic Engineering
DNA plasmids play an integral part in most genetic engineering experiments. In this lesson, you'll learn about key features of a plasmid, such as a multiple cloning site, an origin of replication, and a selectable marker.
3. Restriction Enzymes: Function and Definition
Restriction enzymes played a critical role in the advent of genetic engineering. In this lesson, you will learn what role restriction enzymes play in creating recombinant DNA.
4. How Ligase is Used to Engineer Recombinant DNA
DNA ligase makes recombinant DNA technology possible. In this lesson, you will learn how new versions of genes can be designed for experiments in novel host organisms using DNA ligase.
5. What is Agarose Gel Electrophoresis?
Agarose gel electrophoresis plays a key role in genetic engineering experiments. In this lesson, you'll learn what agarose is and how electrophoresis works. You'll also discover the use of agarose in this procedure.
6. Ethidium Bromide, Loading Buffer & DNA Ladder: Visualizing DNA and Determining its Size
In this lesson, you will learn about the role that ethidium bromide, loading buffers, and DNA ladders play in visualizing DNA and determining the size of DNA fragments in agarose gel electrophoresis.
7. Agarose Gel Electrophoresis: Equipment & Procedure
This lesson will review the concepts and mechanisms of agarose gel electrophoresis. It will also summarize the equipment needed to perform the procedure for DNA analysis.
8. Agarose Gel Electrophoresis: Results Analysis
Gel electrophoresis is used to analyze DNA restriction digest and ligation experiments. In this lesson, you will learn how to use a DNA ladder to interpret experimental results.
9. Bacterial Transformation: Definition, Process and Genetic Engineering of E. coli
How can a plasmid be inserted into a bacterial cell? How can transformed bacteria carrying a recombinant plasmid be distinguished from untransformed counterparts? These questions and more will be answered in this lesson.
10. Bacterial Transformation: Antibiotic Selection and Positive & Negative Controls
The use of antibiotic selection and positive and negative controls are important elements of interpreting data from a bacterial transformation. In this lesson, you will learn how antibiotic selection results in colony formation and how controls help pinpoint the cause of experimental problems.
11. PCR: Reagents Used in Polymerase Chain Reaction
Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a biotechnology technique that is used to amplify pieces of DNA. In this lesson, you will learn about five ingredients necessary to perform PCR: template DNA, nucleotides, primers, buffer and Taq polymerase.
12. PCR: Steps Involved in Polymerase Chain Reaction
In this lesson, you will learn about the steps required to amplify DNA during PCR. The lesson will explain the role template DNA, primers, nucleotides, Taq polymerase and PCR buffer play in the denaturation, annealing and extension steps of PCR.
13. The Sanger Method of DNA Sequencing
The ability to determine the DNA sequence of an individual is a powerful tool for paternity questions and criminal investigations, among other uses. This lesson will describe one laboratory method that can be used to sequence DNA.
14. Cell Fractionation: Definition, Steps & Methods
Cells' structure and chemical composition are extremely complex. Cell fractionation allows scientists to study various parts of cells in order to determine their function and biochemical composition.
15. Optimum Temperature for Enzyme Activity: Definition & Overview
This lesson addresses how temperature influences enzyme function, and provides a concrete example from a lab setting. The key terminology will include the words enzyme, catalase, denaturing, and reaction rate.
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- Basic Science Lab Skills: Help and Review
- Basics of Chemistry
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- Basic Organic Chemistry: Help and Review
- How Enzymes Work: Help and Review
- Essentials of Cell Biology: Help and Review
- Requirements of Biological Systems: Help and Review
- Cell Communication: Help and Review
- Cell Metabolism: Help and Review
- Cell Division in Biology: Help and Review
- Nucleic Acids - DNA and RNA - in Biology: Help and Review
- The Steps of DNA Replication: Help and Review
- Transcription and Translation of Nucleic Acids: Help and Review
- Genetics and Heredity in Biology: Help and Review
- Genetic Mutations in Biology: Help and Review
- DNA Technology and Genomics: Help and Review
- Bacterial Biology Essentials: Help and Review
- Viruses in Biology: Help and Review
- The Origin of the Universe and Life on Earth: Help and Review
- Geologic Time, Dating & Fossils: Help and Review
- Evolution Basics: Help and Review
- The Evolution & Classification of Organisms: Help and Review
- Basics of Plant Biology: Help and Review
- Plant Reproduction & Growth Cycles: Help and Review
- Introduction to Fungi: Help and Review
- Introduction to Invertebrates: Help and Review
- Introduction to Vertebrates: Help and Review
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- The Nervous, Immune, and Endocrine Systems: Help and Review
- Animal Reproduction & Embryonic Development: Help and Review
- Human Reproductive Systems: Help and Review
- Ecology and the Environment: Help and Review
- Human Effects on the Environment: Help and Review
- Animal Behavior: Help and Review
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