About This Chapter
Language Structure - Chapter Summary
Language structure encompasses the various ways that written words are placed together to formulate coherent sentences and passages. There are many components to a sentence, including grammatical elements like colons, semicolons, and commas. There are also structural factors, like phrases and clauses. The lessons in this chapter will help you refresh your understanding of these concepts. Specifically, the lessons will cover:
- Punctuation including commas, periods, colons, and semicolons
- Personal pronouns
- Phrases such as gerund, participial, and prepositional
- Independent and dependent clauses
- Adjectives and adverbs
- An essay's tone, audience, and purpose
These lessons have been developed to help illustrate the material in a manner that's easy to comprehend and retain. There are short, inviting video and text lessons to keep you engaged in the learning process. The video lessons include a clickable timeline you can use to navigate the video and review particular portions of the lesson. After completing each lesson, take a quiz to test your knowledge of the topics. When you've finished the chapter, take a cumulative exam to see how well you've absorbed all of the information.
1. Commas: Correct Usage & Basic Rules
Think that you know commas? You may be surprised. Even the most experienced writers have problems remembering all the rules. Learn the basics of comma usage in this first of two lessons on the comma.
2. Comma Usage: Avoid Confusion in Clauses & Contrasting Sentence Parts
Learn more about comma usage from the pros! There are just too many ways to use the comma (it's a basic punctuation mark, after all) to fit in one sentence. Watch here to learn about some of the more common traps students fall into when trying to put commas in the right place.
3. Punctuation: Using Colons, Semicolons & Periods
Periods, colons, and semicolons all have the ability to stop a sentence in its tracks, but for very different purposes. In this lesson, learn how and why we use them in our writing.
4. What Are Personal Pronouns?
Pronouns are great for making sure debaters don't have to keep repeating the other guy's name over and over again, but they have many other uses too! In fact, pronouns, you could say, make reading readable. In part one, we'll cover personal pronouns and how they're used before moving on to more esoteric varieties.
5. Types of Phrases: Gerund, Participial, Prepositional & More
The writing of a sentence begins with a phrase. In this lesson, we will discuss the definition of a phrase, the different types of phrases, and how knowing what a phrase is will improve your writing.
6. Independent & Dependent Clauses: Subordination & Coordination
This lesson is about independent and dependent clauses, and how they make up a sentence. Dependent clauses, like the name suggests, rely on other elements in a sentence. Independent clauses, on the other hand, can stand alone. Learn more in this lesson.
7. Comparison of Adjectives & Adverbs: Examples, Sentences & Exercises
Adjectives and adverbs are descriptive words that allow our sentences to be much more specific and interesting than they would be without them. This lesson covers the rules for using adjectives and adverbs correctly, including those used in comparisons.
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Other chapters within the TExES English Language Arts and Reading 7-12 (231): Practice & Study Guide course
- Relationships Among the Language Arts
- Teaching for Diverse Student Needs
- Strategies for Teaching English Language Learners
- English Language Development & Analysis
- Strategies & Skills for Reading
- Teaching Fluency
- Teaching & Improving Reading Comprehension
- Analyzing Nonfiction Text
- Executing Research Projects
- Introduction to Literary Analysis
- Periods of American Literature
- British Literature
- World Literature Overview
- Young Adult Literature Overview
- Strategies & Skills for Literary Text
- Essay Writing Fundamentals
- Writing Skills & Techniques
- Strategies for Teaching Writing & Providing Feedback
- Teaching Oral Communication
- Teaching Media Literacy
- Assessing English Language Arts & Reading
- TExES English Language Arts and Reading 7-12 Flashcards