About This Chapter
Learning and Conditioning - Chapter Summary
While school is the place we gain knowledge, there are many different ways our brains learn about the world and decide how to act in it. In this chapter, you'll study famous experiments in which psychologists showed how conditioning, or teaching the brain to respond to certain stimuli, can affect behavior. You'll explore the different types of learning, like social observation and sudden insight, and the role these play in our everyday lives. Behaviors can be cemented through the process of shaping via reinforcements, and we'll delve into how this works. By the end of this chapter you will be able to:
- Describe the hypothetical situation Albert Tucker investigated, applying game theory to asking prisoners for confessions
- Compare and contrast how people learn through both observation and insight and describe how each is important
- Discuss two famous classical conditioning experiments and how stimuli can elicit new responses through conditioning
- Describe John Watson's famous conditioning experiment involving Little Albert and a white rat
- Understand how reinforcement affects behavior, whether it's intrinsic or extrinsic, positive or negative
- Explain the process of shaping and how a series of reinforcements comprises a shaping system
- List the different ways to schedule rewards and why they are effective in different scenarios
- Define emotional intelligence and explain its significance
- Discuss how Seligman's learned helplessness theory applies to human depression and stress
- List behavior modification techniques
- Define biofeedback and give examples
- Give and overview of coping strategies
- Discuss the theory of self-control|
Use the many resources in this chapter to disseminate the rich information. With so many key terms throughout, it might be helpful to use the bold-faced words as a guide, choosing to focus on these important topics. You can check your understanding with the self-assessments included in both the lessons and at chapter end.
1. Classical Conditioning in Psychology: Definition, Principles & Examples
Can you be conditioned to associate something new with something else you naturally respond to? In this lesson, we'll take a look at a famous psychological experiment that tested how brains have the ability to automatically react to new stimuli if it's conditioned correctly.
2. Psychologist John Watson & the Little Albert Experiment
Does classical conditioning work on humans? In this lesson, you'll explore this question as poor Little Albert is taught to fear a rat. You'll also see how classical conditioning can be used in advertising.
3. Operant Conditioning in Psychology: Definition, Theory & Examples
How do we adapt our behaviors to our advantage? Can we learn from punishment and reward? With operant conditioning, our behaviors are shaped based off the responses we get from them.
4. What is Shaping in Psychology? - Definition & Examples
How can teachers shape the behavior of their students? In this lesson, you'll not only discover how a pigeon learned how to bowl, but you'll also study the steps required to shape complex acts into continuous behaviors.
5. Schedules of Reinforcement in Psychology: Continuous & Partial
Have you ever wondered how our behavior is conditioned? How does the timing of rewards affect our behavior and our learning? In this lesson, we'll take a close look at how reinforcement scheduling can influence how fast we learn a behavior and how well the behavior is maintained.
6. Biological Limits on Conditioning: Taste Aversion, the Garcia Effect & Instincts
How can biological influences affect conditioning? Have you ever had food poisoning? In this lesson, you'll see how natural responses can accelerate or hinder conditioning.
7. Social-Cognitive Learning Theory: Definition and Examples
Have you learned behaviors or skills from observing others? Maybe you have learned from observing a teacher, friend, or supervisor. We acquire new knowledge and skills from a variety of methods. This lesson will introduce the concepts of the social-cognitive theory, which focuses on the learning that occurs within a social context.
8. What is the Prisoner's Dilemma? - Albert Tucker & Game Theory
Do you make decisions based on your own self- interest? In this lesson, we'll take a look at the famous 'prisoner's dilemma' game to see if individuals, when faced with a competitive or cooperative decision, will choose selfish or selfless outcomes.
9. Observational vs. Insight Learning: Albert Bandura & Wolfgang Kohler
Do you learn through observation or through sudden understanding? In this lesson, we'll take a look at two different methods of learning, which can affect your behavior and problem-solving ability.
10. What Is Emotional Intelligence? - Definition & Explanation
Do you know people who have difficulty getting along with others and a great deal of conflict in their lives? It's probably linked to their level of emotional intelligence. Learn what emotional intelligence is and how it is important in everyday life.
11. How Seligman's Learned Helplessness Theory Applies to Human Depression and Stress
Learned helplessness is when people feel helpless to avoid negative situations because previous experience has shown them that they do not have control. In this lesson, we'll explore some of the causes and effects of learned helplessness.
12. What Is Behavior Modification? - Definition, Techniques & Examples
How did you learn right from wrong, and what influenced you to form these behaviors? In this lesson, we will explore how factors in our environment work together to determine how we behave.
13. Biofeedback: Definition & Techniques
In this lesson you will learn the definition of biofeedback, instruments used to measure biofeedback data such as involuntary biological functions, techniques used to regulate those functions, and the potential of these techniques to provide helpful treatment for a number of medical problems.
14. Coping Strategy: Definition & Overview
Study the techniques that people use to handle stress. These techniques or behaviors are called coping strategies. Explore different types of coping strategies in this lesson and test your understanding with a quiz.
15. What Is Self-Control? - Definition & Theory
Self-control is an admirable characteristic that should be exercised in all aspects of life. This lesson will discuss the definition of self-control as well as the self-control theory.
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Other chapters within the AP Psychology: Exam Prep course
- AP Psychology: History and Development of Modern Psychology
- AP Psychology: Research Methods Used in the Study of Psychology
- AP Psychology: Intelligence Testing
- AP Psychology: Biology in Psychology
- AP Psychology: The 5 Senses & Psychology
- AP Psychology: Sleep and Other States of Consciousness
- AP Psychology: Memory & Cognition
- AP Psychology: Emotion
- AP Psychology: Motivation in Psychology
- AP Psychology: Child Development in Psychology
- AP Psychology: Personality Development and Theories
- AP Psychology: Study of Social Psychology
- AP Psychology: Abnormal Psychology
- AP Psychology: Types of Psychological Disorders
- AP Psychology: Treatment Methods for Psychological Disorders
- AP Psychology: Test Strategy
- AP Psychology Flashcards