About This Chapter
About This Chapter
Have you ever heard of Pavlov's dogs? This early experiment was a window into one way we learn. Classical conditioning trains us to connect two things in our minds, one an automatic reaction, and the other a learned trigger that sets it off. But conditioning isn't good just for dogs. Early work in classical conditioning was developed further by John Watson's experiment with Little Albert, and it eventually led to a revolution in advertising. Does it ever seem as if marketers understand you a little too well? The lessons in this chapter will help you understand why, as well as exploring the basics of classical conditioning.
You'll also learn about some other forms of conditioning. For example, you might have heard the story of the donkey that could be motivated with either a carrot or a stick. Operant conditioning is the term that psychologists use for voluntary behaviors that are either encouraged by rewards or discouraged by punishments. If you want to learn how a pigeon learned to bowl, tune in to the video lesson discussing shaping, which is how continuous behaviors are created.
When we learn through conditioning, the way that the teacher spaces out rewards affects how we learn and how long it sticks with us. The lesson on scheduling reinforcement introduces the ways that psychologists understand these techniques.
When you think of something being extinct, you likely first think of dinosaurs, but this term is also relevant to the field of psychology. Previously developed behaviors that are not reinforced can disappear, which is referred to as extinction in psychology; check out our lesson that goes into this in detail.
Do we act from self-interest only, or do we work for the advantage of the group? Learn about the prisoner's dilemma, which was a thought experiment developed by scientists working for the Rand Corporation to help us understand how people make decisions and the role of self-interest in that process.
Sometimes we have to build ideas from the ground up. Other times they come to us in a 'Eureka!' moment. In another lesson we discuss how psychologists seek to understand how we develop new ideas through both observation and insight. You will have the opportunity to delve into the definition of observational learning and the four steps involved in this process.
Finally, while we can learn many things, sometimes we run up against biological limits on conditioning, and you'll learn more about this as well. Sometimes conditioning might run against a natural instinct that impedes learning; in other cases, conditioning can take advantage of natural reactions to make learning go more smoothly and last longer.
1. Classical Conditioning in Psychology: Definition, Principles & Examples
Can you be conditioned to associate something new with something else you naturally respond to? In this lesson, we'll take a look at a famous psychological experiment that tested how brains have the ability to automatically react to new stimuli if it's conditioned correctly.
2. Psychologist John Watson & the Little Albert Experiment
Does classical conditioning work on humans? In this lesson, you'll explore this question as poor Little Albert is taught to fear a rat. You'll also see how classical conditioning can be used in advertising.
3. Operant Conditioning in Psychology: Definition, Theory & Examples
How do we adapt our behaviors to our advantage? Can we learn from punishment and reward? With operant conditioning, our behaviors are shaped based off the responses we get from them.
4. What is Shaping in Psychology? - Definition & Examples
How can teachers shape the behavior of their students? In this lesson, you'll not only discover how a pigeon learned how to bowl, but you'll also study the steps required to shape complex acts into continuous behaviors.
5. Schedules of Reinforcement in Psychology: Continuous & Partial
Have you ever wondered how our behavior is conditioned? How does the timing of rewards affect our behavior and our learning? In this lesson, we'll take a close look at how reinforcement scheduling can influence how fast we learn a behavior and how well the behavior is maintained.
6. What is Extinction in Conditioning? - Definition & Explanation
Extinction is the disappearance of a previously learned behavior when the behavior is not reinforced. In this lesson, learn more about extinction in operant conditioning and test your knowledge with a quiz.
7. Observational Learning: Definition, Theory & Examples
Observational learning goes on around us everyday. In this lesson, you will learn to identify the four steps in observational learning by examining a normal event. Test your understanding with the short quiz at the end.
8. Biological Limits on Conditioning: Taste Aversion, the Garcia Effect & Instincts
How can biological influences affect conditioning? Have you ever had food poisoning? In this lesson, you'll see how natural responses can accelerate or hinder conditioning.
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Other chapters within the Psychology 101: Intro to Psychology course
- History & Fundamental Theories of Psychology
- Biological Bases of Behavior for Psychology
- Importance of Sensation and Perception
- States of Consciousness in Psychology
- Cognition Theories & Processes
- Motivation & Emotion Theories in Psychology
- Developmental Psychology Theories & Stages
- Overview of Personality in Psychology
- Social Psychology Concepts & Theories
- Types of Psychological Disorders
- Types of Psychological Treatments
- Trends in the Study of Psychology
- Statistics & Research for Psychology
- Studying for Psychology 101