About This Chapter
Macromolecules - Chapter Summary
In this chapter, our lessons offer detailed explanations of the classes of macromolecules, which are carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucleic acids. Instructors discuss key terms as well as the role of macromolecules in cellular functions. Specifically, this chapter can help you:
- Identify the structures and functions of carbohydrates, lipids and proteins
- Discuss characteristics of the 20 amino acids
- Explain amino acids, polymerization and peptide bonds
- Examine the primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary structures of proteins
- Describe the chemical structures of nucleic acids and phosphodiester bonds
- Explain the double helix structure of DNA
- Identify the differences between RNA and DNA
Our instructors, experts in their field, break down complex subject matter into smaller components to help you master the materials. Each lesson is less than 10 minutes long and can be viewed multiple times. If you need to review one or two main parts of the lesson, use tags to jump to that section of the video. Each lesson also offers a multiple choice quiz to help you assess how well you grasped the information.
1. Structure and Function of Carbohydrates
Carbohydrates are found in many foods that we eat and may be found as sugars, starches, or fiber. Learn more about these three distinct types of carbohydrates, and how they are distinguished through their chemical structures in this lesson.
2. Structure and Function of Lipids
Molecules called lipids have long hydrocarbon chains that determine the way they act. They can be fats, oils, or hormones, and even exist in our cell membranes. Learn more about the chemical structure and biological function of various lipids in this lesson.
3. Proteins I: Structure and Function
We need our proteins, not just as a major food group but for the many useful roles that they play in our bodies. In our introductory lesson to proteins, you'll learn about the many functions we rely on them to perform.
4. Proteins III: Structure and Characteristics of the 20 Amino Acids
How do amino acids form the intricate polypeptide chains found in proteins? It's a matter of chemistry. Join glycine, a special amino acid, as she sizes up the other amino acids.
5. Proteins II: Amino Acids, Polymerization and Peptide Bonds
In this lesson, we'll take a deeper look at amino acids. You'll learn what makes a peptide, and what separates a protein from other kinds of amino acid bonds.
6. Proteins IV: Primary, Secondary, Tertiary and Quaternary Structure
How is progressing through higher order protein structures like crafting an essay? In this lesson, you'll explore everything from quaternary structures to denaturation as we show how the different structures are intertwined.
7. DNA: Chemical Structure of Nucleic Acids & Phosphodiester Bonds
In this lesson, you'll discover what nucleotides look like and how they come together to form polynucleotides. We'll also explore nucleic acids and focus on DNA in particular.
8. DNA: Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine, Thymine & Complementary Base Pairing
Learn the language of nucleotides as we look at the nitrogenous bases adenine, guanine, cytosine and thymine. Armed with this knowledge, you'll also see why DNA strands must run in opposite directions.
9. DNA: Discovery, Facts, Structure & Function in Heredity
This lesson will help you to navigate the twists and turns of DNA's structure. We'll also clue you in on the amazing discoveries that put this nucleic acid in the limelight as the molecule of heredity.
10. Differences Between RNA and DNA & Types of RNA (mRNA, tRNA & rRNA)
In this lesson, you'll explore RNA structure and learn the central dogma of molecular biology. Along the way, you'll meet the three types of RNA and see how the cell uses them most effectively.
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Other chapters within the GACE Biology (526): Practice & Study Guide course
- Atomic and Molecular Structure
- Overview of Chemical Bonds and Reactions
- Types of Organic Molecules
- How Enzymes Work
- Basics of Metabolic Biochemistry
- Cell Biology
- Overview of Cell Division
- Process of DNA Replication
- The Transcription and Translation Process
- Basics of Gene Mutations
- Basic Molecular Biology Laboratory Techniques
- Biology of Genetics
- Mechanisms of Biological Evolution
- The Origin of Life on Earth
- Processes of Scientific Inquiry and Experimental Design
- Processes of Scientific Data Collection and Manipulation
- The Multidisciplinary Nature of Biology
- Important Figures and Events in Biology
- Lab Safety Procedures and Hazards
- Using Laboratory Equipment
- Science, Technology and the Environment
- Organism Classification & Phylogenesis
- Requirements of Biological Systems
- Physiology I: The Circulatory, Respiratory, Digestive, Excretory, and Musculoskeletal Systems
- Physiology II: The Nervous, Immune, and Endocrine Systems
- Animal Reproduction and Development
- Male Reproductive System
- Female Reproductive System
- Plant Biology
- Plant Reproduction and Growth
- Populations and Biological Communities
- Overview of Animal Behavior
- Ecosystems and Biomes
- Biochemical Cycles
- Human Activity and the Biosphere