About This Chapter
Materials From Molecules - Chapter Summary
By going through these lessons, you can master key concepts related to materials from molecules. For instance, you'll quickly get up to speed on the VSEPR theory and molecule shapes. The chapter can also help you better understand covalent bonding and electron shells. After reviewing the lessons, you should be ready to:
- Explain how molecules are constructed
- Provide examples of molecular structures
- Recall how the octet rules applies to electron energy levels
- List different types of structural formulas
- Differentiate between sigma and pi bonds
- Explain how ionic character is determined
- Discuss different intermolecular bonds
- Recall how London dispersion forces are created
These convenient lessons can help you quickly grasp the concepts covered. A brief quiz is available to test your understanding of each lesson, and the quizzes can be printed for use as a helpful study tool. Use your personal Dashboard to track the lessons you've completed and your quiz results.
1. What is a Molecule? - Structure & Models
Water is a molecule. Caffeine is a molecule. DNA is a (really big) molecule. Learn how molecules are constructed and modeled and explore the different types of models.
2. Molecular Substance: Definition & Properties
Hydrogen peroxide, water, and carbon dioxide all have something in common: They are examples of molecular substances. Discover what a molecular substance is, and learn about the different properties used to define these compounds.
3. The Octet Rule and Lewis Structures of Atoms
Learn the octet rule and how it applies to electron energy levels. Identify valence electrons and learn how to determine them by looking at the periodic table. Also, discover how they pertain to the octet rule. Learn how to draw the Lewis diagram of an atom, and understand how it provides clues to chemical bonding.
4. Structural Formula: Definition & Examples
Chemical compounds are made of atoms bonded together. The way the atoms are bonded together in a compound is shown by its structural formula. In this lesson, we will learn about the different types of structural formulas and look at an example for each formula.
5. Using Orbital Hybridization and Valence Bond Theory to Predict Molecular Shape
You'll learn how to explain how shapes of molecules can be predicted using valence bond theory and hybridization. When finished, you'll understand the difference between sigma and pi bonds and how the VSEPR theory, along with the hybridization theory, helps predict the shape of a molecule.
6. Covalent Bonds: Predicting Bond Polarity and Ionic Character
Learn about covalent bonds and their two types: nonpolar covalent bonds and polar covalent bonds. Discover how to predict the type of bond that will form based on the periodic table. Learn what ionic character means and how to determine it.
7. VSEPR Theory & Molecule Shapes
In this lesson, you'll learn about the VSEPR theory and how it can be used to explain molecule shapes. Then, learn how to predict the shape of a molecule by applying the VSEPR theory to the Lewis dot structure.
8. Hydrogen Bonding, Dipole-Dipole & Ion-Dipole Forces: Strong Intermolecular Forces
Learn about intermolecular vs. intramolecular forces. Learn the different intermolecular bonds (including hydrogen bonding and dipole-dipole and ion-dipole forces), their strengths, and their effects on properties, such as boiling and melting points, solubility, and evaporation.
9. London Dispersion Forces (Van Der Waals Forces): Weak Intermolecular Forces
Learn how London dispersion forces are created and what effect they have on properties such as boiling and melting points. Discover this weak intermolecular force and how it is one of the Van der Waals forces.
10. Covalent Bonding and Electron Shells: Definitions, Relationship & the Octet Rule
Learn about the different electron shells of atoms as well as the octet rule for valence electrons and how that applies to covalent bonding. Discover the definition of covalent bonding and the relationships between atoms.
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Other chapters within the VCE Chemistry: Exam Prep & Study Guide course
- Steps of the Scientific Method
- Designing Scientific Experiments
- Procedures of Scientific Investigation
- Lab & Science Safety
- Drawing Conclusions & Communicating Scientific Ideas
- Atoms & Atomic Structure
- Understanding Elements & Periodicity
- Block & Group Elements
- Metals in Chemistry
- Ionic Compounds
- Quantifying Atoms
- Carbon Lattices & Nanomaterials
- Properties of Organic Compounds
- Polymer Basics
- Elements in the Universe
- Alchemy, Chemistry & the Periodic Table
- Lanthanoids & Actinoids
- Using Light to Solve Chemical Puzzles
- Properties of Glass
- Crude Oil & the Environment
- Polymers, Composite Materials & Nanomaterials
- Properties of Water in Chemistry
- Acid-Base Reactions
- Redox Reactions
- Water Sample Analysis
- Measurement of Solubility & Concentration
- Analysis for Salts in Water
- Organic Compounds in Water
- Acids & Bases in Water
- Fuel Choices
- Energy From Fuels
- Fuel Cells & Galvanic Cells
- Rate & Extent of Chemical Changes
- Production of Chemicals by Electrolysis
- Analyzing Organic Compounds
- Key Food Molecules
- Metabolism in the Human Body
- VCE Chemistry Flashcards