About This Chapter
Matter, Energy, and Astronomy - Chapter Summary and Learning Objectives
Learn how the energy emitted from elements can be used to determine the chemical composition of objects in space. Instructors break down the most basic form of matter, the atom, into its subatomic particles to show you the processes by which electrons emit photons of visible light. You can also study the different types of electromagnetic radiation and explore the basic concepts of quantum mechanics with lessons on the following:
- Phase changes and states of matter
- Properties of subatomic particles
- Interactions between energy and light
- Uses of atomic spectra to study space
|Matter: Physical and Chemical Properties||Survey the physical and chemical properties of matter. Learn the differences between mixtures, pure substances, elements, and compounds.|
|States of Matter: Solids, Liquids, Gases, & Plasma||Identify properties of each of these states of matter.|
|Phase Change: Evaporation, Condensation, Freezing, Melting, Sublimation, & Deposition||Describe the exchange of energy occurring when matter changes from its present state to a liquid, solid, or gas.|
|The Atom||Explore properties of an atom's protons, electrons, and neutrons.|
|Atomic Number and Mass Number||Learn how to determine an element's atomic number, atomic mass, and place on the periodic table by counting its protons and neutrons.|
|What Are Elements?||Get examples of common elements. Examine the symbols used to represent them.|
|The Periodic Table: Properties of Groups and Periods||Explain the periodic table's organization. Identify the characteristics of various periods and groups.|
|Understanding the Relationships Between Elements, Molecules, & Compounds||Discover how elements form the building blocks of molecules and compounds.|
|The Bohr Model and Atomic Spectra||Use the Bohr model to learn why an atom's changing electron levels create visible light.|
|Atom Energy Levels & Spectra in Space||Explain the relationship between an element's electron population and the patterns recorded on its emission spectra.|
|How Energy & Light Interact||Get examples of how light and matter interact in everyday life.|
|The Key Findings of Quantum Mechanics||Learn how energy is quantized. Study the nature of observation in quantum mechanics.|
|Radiation, Heat, & Astronomy||Use Boltzmann's law and Wien's law to identify electromagnetic radiation types by temperature.|
1. Matter: Physical and Chemical Properties
How are substances identified? There are two major ways we can describe a substance: physical properties and chemical properties. Learn about how chemists use properties to classify matter as either a mixture or a pure substance.
2. States of Matter: Solids, Liquids, Gases, & Plasma
Learn the four states of matter in the universe: solid, liquid, gas and plasma. Learn about the differences in shape and volume among the four states, which of the states is the most common and why plasma conducts electricity.
3. Phase Change: Evaporation, Condensation, Freezing, Melting, Sublimation & Deposition
Substances on Earth can exist in one of four phases, but mostly, they exist in one of three: solid, liquid or gas. Learn the six changes of phase: freezing, melting, condensation, vaporization, sublimation and deposition.
4. The Atom
Tune into this lesson to find out what matters about matter. What exactly is an atom? And, how do the atoms that make up the elements in the periodic table differ from one another?
5. The Bohr Model and Atomic Spectra
Do you ever wonder where light comes from or how it is produced? In this lesson, we are going to use our knowledge of the electron configurations and quantum numbers to see what goes on during the creation of light.
6. Atomic Number and Mass Number
Atoms are the basic building blocks of everything around you. In order to really understand how atoms combine to form molecules, it's necessary to be familiar with their structure. In this lesson, we'll dissect atoms so we can see just what really goes into those little building blocks of matter.
7. What Are Elements?
Look around you. What do you see? Elements are everywhere. They are the building blocks of all matter on Earth. In this lesson, we will discuss what an element is, how elements are written as symbols, and how elements are the building blocks of all matter.
8. The Periodic Table: Properties of Groups and Periods
How is the periodic table like the map you used on your last road trip? In this lesson, you will be introduced to the periodic table, the road map of chemists. We will discuss how the elements are organized and how you can use this organization to identify some of their major physical properties.
9. Understanding the Relationships between Elements, Molecules & Compounds
Everything on Earth is made of atoms, and sometimes they combine to form new groups of atoms. The sky is the limit when it comes to these combinations, which account for the vast number of things we find in our natural world.
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Other chapters within the Basics of Astronomy course
- Celestial Navigation & Timekeeping
- Characteristics of Our Solar System's Planets
- Earth's Spheres and Astronomy
- Galaxies: Properties & Characteristics
- How Scientists Think and Work
- Influences on Climate
- Life in the Universe
- Light in Astronomy
- Measurement of Star Qualities
- Momentum, Energy, Pressure, Temperature & Gas
- Newton's Laws in Astronomy
- Relativity in Time and Space
- Rotational Motion in Physics
- Small Celestial Bodies & Satellites in Our Solar System
- Star Death and Stellar Remnants
- Star Types and Significance
- The Atmosphere on Earth and Other Planets
- The Birth and Life of Stars
- The Earth, Sky, and Moon
- The History of Astronomy
- The Milky Way Galaxy
- The Moon: Formation & Phases
- The Orbits of Celestial Bodies
- The Solar System: Layout, Formation & Dating
- The Sun's Structure & Components
- The Universe: Key Concepts & Theories