About This Chapter
MCAS STE Biology: Transcription & Translation - Chapter Summary
The video lessons in this chapter provide a detailed review of DNA transcription and translation. By the end of the chapter you will have examined:
- Protein synthesis in the cell and the central dogma
- Transcription of mRNA from DNA
- Regulation of gene expression
- Control of transcription by an operon in prokaryotic cells
- RNA processing in eukaryotic cells
- Codon recognition in the genetic code
- Role ribosomes and peptide bonds play in genetic translation
- Steps in the translation of mRNA to protein
The lessons in this chapter have been created by educational professionals to provide you with helpful methods for grasping and retaining the information. Each lesson contains a video illustrating the material being covered. Use the timeline underneath each video to review a particular portion of the lesson. There are self-assessment quizzes at the end of each lesson for you to apply your knowledge and see how questions may look on the exam.
MCAS STE Biology: Transcription & Translation - Objectives
The MCAS STE Biology exam is a standardized test taken by high school students in Massachusetts. The exam assesses your level of understanding in biology and tests your ability to meet the learning standards set by the Massachusetts Curriculum Framework. The MCAS STE Biology exam is comprised of five content areas. The lessons in this chapter prepare you for questions related to genetics, which account for 20% of the total score.
The MCAS STE Biology exam is one of four Science and Technology/Engineering (STE) exams given to high school students. A score of 220 or higher is needed on one of the four STE exams to qualify for graduation. The MCAS STE Biology exam consists of 40 multiple-choice questions and 5 open-response questions.
1. Protein Synthesis in the Cell and the Central Dogma
Protein is necessary for healthy cells. Learn about the roles of central dogma and protein synthesis in the process to form protein molecules, and understand the function and importance of genes in this process.
2. Transcription of Messenger RNA (mRNA) from DNA
Transcription is an important part of the process to transform DNA into a living being. Learn about transcription, including when it begins and the three phases in its process. Understand which DNA strand is the template for transcription and explore the purposes of a promoter, polymerase, and mRNA.
3. Regulation of Gene Expression: Transcriptional Repression and Induction
Our bodies regulate gene expression. Learn the function of genes and understand gene regulation, including transcriptional repression as well as induction. Explore the differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic gene regulation.
4. How An Operon Controls Transcription in a Prokaryotic Cell
Operons are groups of genes that control transcription in a prokaryotic cell. Discover how operons repress or induct gene expressions in complex interactions of DNA, enzymes, and regulatory proteins.
5. RNA Processing in a Eukaryotic Cell: Splicing of Introns & Exons
Eukaryotic cells have unique considerations for gene regulation that differ from those for prokaryote cells. Learn about these differences, understand introns and exons, and explore RNA processing in a eukaryotic cell through the splicing of introns and exons.
6. What Is the Genetic Code That Translates RNA Into Amino Acids?
RNA translates into amino acids through genetic code. Learn about the translation process and review the genetic code language, plus discover the role of codons, including start codons, stop codons, and other codons.
7. Making Sense of the Genetic Code: Codon Recognition
Codon recognition is the ability of codons to match with the proper amino acids. Discover how essential codon recognition is to the assembly of polypeptides, and how to read a codon chart.
8. Codon Recognition: How tRNA and Anticodons Interpret the Genetic Code
Codon recognition is tRNA's ability to match codons with the appropriate amino acids. Learn about this important part of the translation process for cells, understand its role in polypeptide assembly and protein production, and explore how tRNA and anticodons interpret the genetic code.
9. The Role of Ribosomes and Peptide Bonds in Genetic Translation
Ribosomes live on the endoplasmic reticulum surrounding the nucleus and are key in the process of polypeptide assembly. This is essential for genetic translation because amino acid chains are linked together by peptide bonds. Explore the structure of ribosomes and how peptide bonds are formed.
10. Translation of mRNA to Protein: Initiation, Elongation & Termination Steps
In genetics, the translation is the conversion of mRNA genetic code in amino acids. Learn about the mechanics of translation, including its three main steps: initiation, elongation, and termination, understand how this process produces protein.
Earning College Credit
Did you know… We have over 220 college courses that prepare you to earn credit by exam that is accepted by over 1,500 colleges and universities. You can test out of the first two years of college and save thousands off your degree. Anyone can earn credit-by-exam regardless of age or education level.
To learn more, visit our Earning Credit Page
Other chapters within the MCAS - Science & Technology-Engineering - Biology: Test Prep & Practice course
- MCAS STE Biology: Chemistry of Life
- MCAS STE Biology: Enzymatic Biochemistry
- MCAS STE Biology: Organelles
- MCAS STE Biology: Cellular Structure & Transport
- MCAS STE Biology: Classification & Evolution
- MCAS STE Biology: Cellular Respiration & Photosynthesis
- MCAS STE Biology: Cell Growth & Reproduction
- MCAS STE Biology: DNA Replication
- MCAS STE Biology: Genetics & Heredity
- MCAS STE Biology: Digestive & Circulatory Systems
- MCAS STE Biology: Nervous & Endocrine Systems
- MCAS STE Biology: Respiratory & Musculoskeletal Systems
- MCAS STE Biology: The Reproductive System
- MCAS STE Biology: Evolution & Biodiversity
- MCAS STE Biology: Ecology
- MCAS STE Biology: Scientific Method & Inquiry
- MCAS STE Biology: The Science Lab
- MCAS STE Biology: Using Mathematics in Science
- MCAS - Science & Technology-Engineering - Biology Flashcards