About This Chapter
MCAS STE Biology: Transcription & Translation - Chapter Summary
The video lessons in this chapter provide a detailed review of DNA transcription and translation. By the end of the chapter you will have examined:
- Protein synthesis in the cell and the central dogma
- Transcription of mRNA from DNA
- Regulation of gene expression
- Control of transcription by an operon in prokaryotic cells
- RNA processing in eukaryotic cells
- Codon recognition in the genetic code
- Role ribosomes and peptide bonds play in genetic translation
- Steps in the translation of mRNA to protein
The lessons in this chapter have been created by educational professionals to provide you with helpful methods for grasping and retaining the information. Each lesson contains a video illustrating the material being covered. Use the timeline underneath each video to review a particular portion of the lesson. There are self-assessment quizzes at the end of each lesson for you to apply your knowledge and see how questions may look on the exam.
MCAS STE Biology: Transcription & Translation - Objectives
The MCAS STE Biology exam is a standardized test taken by high school students in Massachusetts. The exam assesses your level of understanding in biology and tests your ability to meet the learning standards set by the Massachusetts Curriculum Framework. The MCAS STE Biology exam is comprised of five content areas. The lessons in this chapter prepare you for questions related to genetics, which account for 20% of the total score.
The MCAS STE Biology exam is one of four Science and Technology/Engineering (STE) exams given to high school students. A score of 220 or higher is needed on one of the four STE exams to qualify for graduation. The MCAS STE Biology exam consists of 40 multiple-choice questions and 5 open-response questions.
1. Protein Synthesis in the Cell and the Central Dogma
Learn the story of the central dogma and how it relates to protein synthesis. We'll use a simple analogy to explore the roles of transcription and translation in building protein from the DNA code. In this lesson, we'll also introduce the concept of a gene.
2. Transcription of Messenger RNA (mRNA) from DNA
In this lesson, you will gain a thorough understanding of how transcription works. We will investigate how DNA is transcribed into RNA with the help of a promoter and RNA polymerase. Learn the purpose of messenger RNA and explore the three phases of transcription.
3. Regulation of Gene Expression: Transcriptional Repression and Induction
Do our genes work the same way all the time? How do we regulate the expression of our genes? Explore the various ways organisms control gene transcription through repression and induction of operons.
4. How An Operon Controls Transcription in a Prokaryotic Cell
Is gene regulation really as simple as flipping a switch? What are the parts of an operon, and how do they function to control gene transcription? We'll study the lac operon to answer these questions.
5. RNA Processing in a Eukaryotic Cell: Splicing of Introns & Exons
In this lesson, we'll explore the unique considerations for gene regulation in the eukaryotic cell. We'll walk through RNA splicing of introns and exons and the addition of the 5' cap and poly(A) tail.
6. What Is the Genetic Code That Translates RNA Into Amino Acids?
How is RNA translated into a series of amino acids? Learn the language of the genetic code, explore a codon dictionary, and discover some basics of genetics in this lesson on translation.
7. Making Sense of the Genetic Code: Codon Recognition
Explore the genetic code and how it is translated into a polypeptide. We'll practice using the RNA codon chart and learn the basics of codon recognition.
8. Codon Recognition: How tRNA and Anticodons Interpret the Genetic Code
How does codon recognition work at the molecular level? Can you use tRNA and anticodons to decipher the genetic code? Learn the mechanics of codon recognition and build a polypeptide from a sample genetic code.
9. The Role of Ribosomes and Peptide Bonds in Genetic Translation
Ribosomes play a major role in the process of genetic translation. In this lesson, learn about the structure of ribosomes and how peptide bonds help to create chains of amino acids.
10. Translation of mRNA to Protein: Initiation, Elongation & Termination Steps
Translation, the second part of the central dogma of molecular biology, describes how the genetic code is used to make amino acid chains. In this lesson, explore the mechanics involved in polypeptide synthesis. Learn the three major steps of translation as you watch tRNA, mRNA, and ribosomes go to work.
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Other chapters within the MCAS - Science & Technology-Engineering - Biology: Test Prep & Practice course
- MCAS STE Biology: Chemistry of Life
- MCAS STE Biology: Enzymatic Biochemistry
- MCAS STE Biology: Organelles
- MCAS STE Biology: Cellular Structure & Transport
- MCAS STE Biology: Classification & Evolution
- MCAS STE Biology: Cellular Respiration & Photosynthesis
- MCAS STE Biology: Cell Growth & Reproduction
- MCAS STE Biology: DNA Replication
- MCAS STE Biology: Genetics & Heredity
- MCAS STE Biology: Digestive & Circulatory Systems
- MCAS STE Biology: Nervous & Endocrine Systems
- MCAS STE Biology: Respiratory & Musculoskeletal Systems
- MCAS STE Biology: The Reproductive System
- MCAS STE Biology: Evolution & Biodiversity
- MCAS STE Biology: Ecology
- MCAS STE Biology: Scientific Method & Inquiry
- MCAS STE Biology: The Science Lab
- MCAS STE Biology: Using Mathematics in Science
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