About This Chapter
How It Works:
- Identify the lessons in the McDougal Littell Formation of Western Europe chapter with which you need help.
- Find the corresponding video lessons with this companion course chapter.
- Watch fun videos that cover formation of Western Europe topics you need to learn or review.
- Complete the quizzes to test your understanding.
- If you need additional help, rewatch the videos until you've mastered the material or submit a question for one of our instructors.
Students Will Study:
- Gothic architecture and art, including stained glass windows
- Causes, history and impact of the Crusades
- The Medieval warm period and agricultural technologies
- Development of universities
- Thomas Aquinas and his work
- Towns and commerce, including the importance of guilds
- The Magna Carta and the Constitution of Clarendon
- William the Conqueror
- Politics in the Dark Ages
- Philip Augustus of France and Henry II of England
- The Great Schism in the Eastern and Western churches
- Christian Anti-Semitism
- The Little Ice Age and the Black Death
- The Tale of Three Popes and the Western Schism
- The Hundred Years' War, including the role of the longbow and Joan of Arc
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1. Gothic Architecture: Style, Characteristics & History
This lesson covers the three main features of Gothic architecture: the pointed arch, the rib vault and the flying buttress. We then look at a slideshow of examples of the Gothic style around Europe.
2. Gothic Sculpture and Stained Glass Windows: Characteristics & Style
In this lesson, we cover the development of Gothic architectural decoration, specifically decorative sculpture and stained glass windows. You'll learn about Gothic use of stained glass and the evolution of sculpture from Romanesque decoration to Gothic statues.
3. Gothic Painting: Style & Characteristics
This lesson follows the development of two trends in Gothic painting: realism and perspective. We explore the origins of these movements in Italian Gothic masters, like Duccio, Giotto and the Lorenzetti Brothers, and their later expression in Northern European illuminations.
4. The First Crusade: Causes and Effects
This lesson covers the motivations of Pope Urban II in calling for the crusade at Clermont and at the religious and secular motivations of European laymen. We will also look at the startling success of the first crusade.
5. The Great Crusades: History and Timeline
This lesson examines the utter failure of the later crusades. We look at some of the factors that led to this failure. We then have a glimpse at each of the major crusades abroad, as well as the political and heretical crusades in Europe.
6. Results and Impact of the Crusades
This lesson explores the results and impact of the Crusades. We examine the social impact, the political impact and the economic impact of three centuries of crusading.
7. The Medieval Warm Period and New Agricultural Technologies
In this lesson, we explore the factors that brought about Europe's Medieval Agricultural Revolution. We look at the climate of Europe and the key agricultural technologies and techniques that revolutionized agriculture: the heavy plow, the horse collar & the three field crop rotation system.
8. The Rise of Universities and Displacement of Monasteries
Before the Middle Ages, education was the responsibility of the Church. As the need for education spread to those who were not clergy, monasteries could no longer meet the needs of education. This lesson explores the decline of monastic education and the rise of the university.
9. Thomas Aquinas' Influence on the Catholic Church
St. Thomas Aquinas was perhaps the most important figure of the Catholic Church during the Middle Ages. This lesson examines what he did to help protect the Church against a rebirth of critical thinking by using critical thinking to defend the Church.
10. The Reemergence of Towns and Commerce
This lesson explores the urban revolution of the 12th century. We will examine the causes, especially the resurgence of trade, and then look at the various factors that made the revolution possible. Finally, we will discuss the impact of this revolution on Medieval Europe.
11. Guilds in Western Culture and Economies in the High Middle Ages
Medieval guilds provided standards for production and protected their members from oppression. This lesson explores why guilds developed in the High Middle Ages.
12. The Magna Carta & The Constitutions of Clarendon: Definition & Significance
In the High Middle Ages, rulers fought for supreme power. This lesson explores two of the earliest documents to limit power of an authority figure, whether it was the pope or a king.
13. William the Conqueror & Politics and Art in the Dark Ages
This lesson will explore the life and deeds of William the Conqueror. In exploring the political backdrop of the Dark Ages, it will highlight the Battle of Hastings, the Bayeux Tapestry, and the Domesday Book.
14. Henry II of England and Philip Augustus of France
This lesson will explore the reigns of the Angevin Plantagenet kings of England, Henry II, Richard I, and John. It will also highlight their dealings with Philip Augustus of France.
15. The Great Schism Between the East and Western Churches
This lesson will define and explain the Great Schism, which led to the formation of Western Catholicism and Eastern Orthodoxy. In doing so, it will highlight the political and cultural factors that led to the the great divide.
16. Christian Antisemitism in Medieval Europe
Medieval Europe was predominantly full of Christian societies, but not all citizens were Christians. In this lesson, we'll talk about anti-Semitic policies and fears that characterize European societies for over a millennium.
17. The Little Ice Age and the Black Death
Fourteenth century Europe experienced a devastating population decline due to a climate cooling, famine, and the plague. This lesson explores how these factors occurred and their impact on Europe.
18. The Western Schism and the Tale of 3 Popes
In the Middle Ages, the Catholic church ended up with three elected popes, creating a division in loyalty. This lesson explores how this incident occurred and how it was finally resolved.
19. The Hundred Years' War: England vs. France
The Hundred Years' War was fought between England and France between 1337 and 1453. This lesson explores what led to the conflict and some of the decisive battles of the war.
20. The Longbow in the Hundred Years' War
The Hundred Years' War was fought between England and France over English control of French territories. In two major battles, England won because of their longbowmen. This lesson explains why the longbows were important.
21. Joan of Arc and the End of the Hundred Years' War
Joan of Arc was a French peasant who led French troops against England in the Hundred Years' War. This lesson provides a brief description of her life and actions in the war against England.
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Other chapters within the McDougal Littell World History: Online Textbook Help course
- McDougal Littell World History Chapter 1: The Peopling of the World, Prehistory-2500 B.C.
- McDougal Littell World History Chapter 2: Early River Valley Civilizations, 3500 B.C.-450 B.C.
- McDougal Littell World History Chapter 3: People and Ideas on the Move, 2000 B.C.-250 B.C.
- McDougal Littell World History Chapter 4: First Age of Empires, 1570 B.C.-200 B.C.
- McDougal Littell World History Chapter 5: Classical Greece, 2000 B.C.-300 B.C.
- McDougal Littell World History Chapter 6: Ancient Rome and Early Christianity, 500 B.C.-A.D. 501
- McDougal Littell World History Chapter 7: India and China Establish Empires, 400 B.C.-A.D. 551
- McDougal Littell World History Chapter 8: African Civilizations, 1500 B.C.-A.D. 701
- McDougal Littell World History Chapter 9: The Americas: A Separate World, 40,000 B.C.-A.D. 701
- McDougal Littell World History Chapter 10: The Muslim World, 600-1251
- McDougal Littell World History Chapter 11: Byzantines, Russians, and Turks Interact, 500-1501
- McDougal Littell World History Chapter 12: Empires in East Asia, 600-1351
- McDougal Littell World History Chapter 13: European Middle Ages
- McDougal Littell World History Chapter 15: Societies and Empires of Africa
- McDougal Littell World History Chapter 16: People and Empires in the Americas
- McDougal Littell World History Chapter 17: European Renaissance and Reformation
- McDougal Littell World History Chapter 18: The Muslim World Expands
- McDougal Littell World History Chapter 19: An Age of Explorations and Isolations
- McDougal Littell World History Chapter 20: The Atlantic World
- McDougal Littell World History Chapter 21: Absolute Monarchs in Europe
- McDougal Littell World History Chapter 22: Enlightenment and Revolutions
- McDougal Littell World History Chapter 23: The French Revolution and Napoleon
- McDougal Littell World History Chapter 24: Nationalists Revolutions Sweep the West
- McDougal Littell World History Chapter 25: The Industrial Revolution
- McDougal Littell World History Chapter 26: An Age of Democracy and Progress
- McDougal Littell World History Chapter 27: The Age of Imperialism
- McDougal Littell World History Chapter 28: Transformations Around the Globe
- McDougal Littell World History Chapter 29: The Great War
- McDougal Littell World History Chapter 30: Asian Revolutions and Nationalism
- McDougal Littell World History Chapter 31: Years of World Crisis
- McDougal Littell World History Chapter 32: World War Two
- McDougal Littell World History Chapter 33: Restructuring the Postwar World
- McDougal Littell World History Chapter 34: The Colonies Become New Nations
- McDougal Littell World History Chapter 35: Struggles for Democracy
- McDougal Littell World History Chapter 36: Global Independence