About This Chapter
How It Works:
- Identify the lessons in the McDougal Littell Ancient Rome and Early Christianity, 500 B.C.-A.D. 501 chapter with which you need help.
- Find the corresponding video lessons with this companion course chapter.
- Watch fun videos that cover the ancient Rome and early Christianity topics you need to learn or review.
- Complete the quizzes to test your understanding.
- If you need additional help, rewatch the videos until you've mastered the material or submit a question for one of our instructors.
You'll learn all of the history topics covered in the textbook chapter, including:
- Rome's founding and early development
- Formation and structure of the Roman Republic
- Latin, Pyrrhic and Samnite Wars
- Punic Wars
- Rome's seven kings
- The Gracchi, Marius and Sulla
- Julius Caesar's destruction of the Roman Republic
- The early days of the Roman Empire
- Roman Law and the Pax Roman
- How Rome spread its civilization
- Roman engineering, art, architecture
- The life of Christ and the Gospels
- Jews and Christians in the Roman Empire
- The Apostle Paul and early Church fathers
- Persecution of the Christians
- Rise of Christianity
- Early Christianity's ties to Judaism
- The fall of Rome
- The Aeneid
- Virgil, Horace and Ovid
- The Julio-Claudian Dynasty
- The Flavian Dynasty
- The Nervan-Antonine Dynasty
- The Severan Dynasty
- Division of the Roman Empire in the third century
- Legacy of ancient Greece
- Ancient Rome's impact on modern life and culture
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1. The Founding of Ancient Rome & Rome's Early History
This lesson covers the foundation of Rome. We look at the geography of Italy. We examine some of its most important inhabitants before the Romans. Finally, we look at both the historical facts and the Roman myths regarding the foundation of Rome.
2. Rise of the Roman Republic: Summary of Events
This lesson explains the rise of the Roman Republic after the expulsion of the Etruscan kings. It cites location, military strategy, and a well-formed political structure as reasons for the Republic's rise.
3. Formation of the Roman Republic: Offices, Institutions and History
This lesson covers the formation of the Roman Republic. We start by identifying the underlying causes of the Republican revolution. We then examine how the Romans instituted and expanded upon their system of checks and balances, starting with patrician assemblies and ending with the Plebeian Council.
4. The Political Structure of the Roman Republic
This lesson explains the political structure of the Roman Republic by highlighting the importance of social class within the system. It also explains the roles and positions of the Consuls, the Senate, and the Assembly.
5. The Latin, Samnite & Pyrrhic Wars
This lesson covers the unification of Italy under Roman control. In the course of this lesson, we explore the causes and repercussions of the Samnite Wars, the Latin War, and the Pyrrhic War.
6. The Punic Wars: Causes, Summary & Hannibal
This lesson covers the three Punic Wars. We compare Rome to Carthage, then get into a summary account of the First, Second and Third Punic Wars, with brief discussions of their causes and consequences.
7. The Seven Kings of Rome: History & Summary
This lesson covers the legendary kings of Rome. The historical reality of these kings is challenged, and the central myths of their reign are explored.
8. Reform in the Roman Republic: The Gracchi, Marius & Sulla
This lesson covers the reforms of the Late Republic. We look at the effects of slavery on the Republic. We examine the factors that led to social unrest. Finally, we take a look at the efforts of various great men to save the Republic from itself.
9. The Death of the Republic: Julius Caesar & Pompey
This lesson explores the factors that led to the death of the Roman Republic. We start with class warfare. We then move onto the exploits of Pompey. Finally, we see how Julius Caesar delivered the death stroke to the Roman Republic.
10. The Early Roman Empire and the Reign of Augustus Caesar
This lesson is about Augustus, the first emperor of Rome. In this lesson we follow Augustus's meteoric rise to power, the collapse of the Roman Republic, and the rise of the Roman Empire.
11. Roman Law and the Pax Romana: Definition, Meaning & History
This lesson examines Roman law, following its development over time. Next, we briefly explore the three branches of Roman law. Finally, we look at how the spread of Roman law led to an era of Roman peace known as the Pax Romana.
12. Roman Engineering and Architecture
This lecture covers Roman advances in architecture and engineering. First, Rome's debt to Greece is explored. Next, Roman advances in material science are enumerated: cement, mortar and concrete. After that, we will look at a few distinctly Roman techniques: the arch and the dome.
13. Roman Art: History, Characteristics & Style
This lesson offers a basic outline of Roman art. We begin by examining the Greek roots of Roman art. Then, we look at the three predominant forms of Roman art: sculpture, murals and mosaics.
14. The Gospels: The Life of Christ
This lesson will be a brief exploration of the life of Christ. It will highlight His virgin birth, public ministry, the reasons for His crucifixion, His resurrection and the Christian message that Christ offered salvation to all who believe in His name.
15. Paul and the Early Church Fathers
This lesson will identify the earliest Church Fathers as the 12 disciples and the Apostle Paul. In doing this, it will highlight the persecution of the Christian Church as well as the conversion of Saul, known to history as Paul.
16. St. Stephen & Christians in the Roman Empire
For much of the early history of Christianity, worship was heavily persecuted. In this lesson, we look at the beginning of that persecution with Saint Stephen, as well as the changing relationship between Rome and the Church.
17. The Conversion of Constantine and the Ascent of Christianity
This lesson will explain the conversion of Constantine and the ascent of Christianity. In doing this, it will highlight the Edict of Milan and the famous Council of Nicaea.
18. The Early Christian Church and Its Ties to Judaism
This lesson will explore the early Christian Church and its close connection to Judaism. It will highlight the similarities of these two faiths in reference to the Holy Scriptures while also exploring their disagreement over the person of Jesus Christ.
19. The Fall of Rome
This lesson explains the gradual fall of Rome. In doing so, it highlights corruption, division, and outside invasion as the main reasons for the fall of the Eternal City.
20. The Aeneid by Virgil
This lesson explores Virgil's 'Aeneid'. It consists of a brief plot synopsis. We stop along the way to look at a few important scenes and offer analysis where necessary.
21. Augustus' Propagandists: Virgil, Horace and Ovid
This lesson explores the role of poetry in Augustus' rise to power. We look at the contributions of Virgil and Horace, two poets brought to Augustus' aid by his friend Maecenas. We also look at the legacy of Ovid, a poet who seems to have raised the emperor's ire.
22. Emperors of the Julio-Claudian Dynasty
This lesson will explain the soap opera-like reign of the Julio-Claudian Dynasty. Highlighting the reigns of Augustus, Tiberius, Caligula, Claudius, and Nero, it will shed light on the Roman Empire's first ruling dynasty.
23. The Year of the Four Emperors & the Flavian Dynasty
This lesson will explore the famous Flavian emperors: Vespasian, Titus, and Domitian. It will explain how this dynasty came to power during the Year of the Four Emperors. It will also highlight the details of each emperor's reign.
24. The Five Good Emperors of Rome & the Nervan-Antonine Dynasty
This lesson will identify the emperors of the Nervan-Antonine Dynasty. It will explain the rule of the Five Good Emperors of the era, while also highlighting the rule of Commodus, the last of the dynasty's emperors.
25. Emperors of the Severan Dynasty
This lesson focuses on the Severan Dynasty, which ruled Rome from 193 CE to 235 CE. Although the lesson explains the military and social reforms of this dynasty, it also highlights the outlandish personalities of the individual rulers.
26. Division of the Roman Empire: Diocletian & the 3rd Century Crisis
This lesson will explain the 3rd Century Crisis of the Roman Empire. It will focus on the political, civil and economic problems that caused the crisis, and will also highlight the role of Diocletian in the resolution of the crisis.
27. Legacy of Ancient Greece: Art, Government, Science & Sports
In this lesson, you will explore the legacies that the ancient Greeks left behind on this world in art, government, science, and sports. Then, test your understanding with a brief quiz.
28. Ancient Roman Culture & Its Influence on Modern Life
From religion and laws to language and more, the Romans have had an enormous impact on the development of Western culture. This lesson details a few of the more prominent points of the Roman legacy.
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Other chapters within the McDougal Littell World History: Online Textbook Help course
- McDougal Littell World History Chapter 1: The Peopling of the World, Prehistory-2500 B.C.
- McDougal Littell World History Chapter 2: Early River Valley Civilizations, 3500 B.C.-450 B.C.
- McDougal Littell World History Chapter 3: People and Ideas on the Move, 2000 B.C.-250 B.C.
- McDougal Littell World History Chapter 4: First Age of Empires, 1570 B.C.-200 B.C.
- McDougal Littell World History Chapter 5: Classical Greece, 2000 B.C.-300 B.C.
- McDougal Littell World History Chapter 7: India and China Establish Empires, 400 B.C.-A.D. 551
- McDougal Littell World History Chapter 8: African Civilizations, 1500 B.C.-A.D. 701
- McDougal Littell World History Chapter 9: The Americas: A Separate World, 40,000 B.C.-A.D. 701
- McDougal Littell World History Chapter 10: The Muslim World, 600-1251
- McDougal Littell World History Chapter 11: Byzantines, Russians, and Turks Interact, 500-1501
- McDougal Littell World History Chapter 12: Empires in East Asia, 600-1351
- McDougal Littell World History Chapter 13: European Middle Ages
- McDougal Littell World History Chapter 14: The Formation of Western Europe
- McDougal Littell World History Chapter 15: Societies and Empires of Africa
- McDougal Littell World History Chapter 16: People and Empires in the Americas
- McDougal Littell World History Chapter 17: European Renaissance and Reformation
- McDougal Littell World History Chapter 18: The Muslim World Expands
- McDougal Littell World History Chapter 19: An Age of Explorations and Isolations
- McDougal Littell World History Chapter 20: The Atlantic World
- McDougal Littell World History Chapter 21: Absolute Monarchs in Europe
- McDougal Littell World History Chapter 22: Enlightenment and Revolutions
- McDougal Littell World History Chapter 23: The French Revolution and Napoleon
- McDougal Littell World History Chapter 24: Nationalists Revolutions Sweep the West
- McDougal Littell World History Chapter 25: The Industrial Revolution
- McDougal Littell World History Chapter 26: An Age of Democracy and Progress
- McDougal Littell World History Chapter 27: The Age of Imperialism
- McDougal Littell World History Chapter 28: Transformations Around the Globe
- McDougal Littell World History Chapter 29: The Great War
- McDougal Littell World History Chapter 30: Asian Revolutions and Nationalism
- McDougal Littell World History Chapter 31: Years of World Crisis
- McDougal Littell World History Chapter 32: World War Two
- McDougal Littell World History Chapter 33: Restructuring the Postwar World
- McDougal Littell World History Chapter 34: The Colonies Become New Nations
- McDougal Littell World History Chapter 35: Struggles for Democracy
- McDougal Littell World History Chapter 36: Global Independence