About This Chapter
Standard: Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grades 9-10 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies.
About This Chapter
Students who understand this standard's prescripts know how to discern the meanings of unfamiliar words and phrases, as well as how to reference resource materials to aid in such learning and verify their inferences. Students also recognize how to formulate their own sentences to convey the desired tone and meaning.
Lessons for this standard incorporate topics including:
- Using inference to determine meaning
- Studying context and word construction to discern definitions of unfamiliar words
- Strategies to identify parts of speech to help determine word meanings
- Understanding prefixes, suffixes, and other word components
- Utilizing reference materials to confirm inferred definitions
- Tips for structuring sentences according to intended tone and message
Students exhibit competency in this standard when reading increasingly complex material. They deduce the meanings of unfamiliar words as they encounter them via sophisticated understanding of word components (e.g., prefixes and suffixes) and attention to context. These students are also familiar with how to find and use appropriate reference materials to confirm or determine word meanings, and they are able to choose effective words and sentence configurations in their own writing.
How to Use These Lessons in Your Classroom
Here are some suggestions for ways to use these videos to complement teaching of the CCSS.ELA-Literacy.L.9-10.4 standard:
After assigning the lesson on inferring intended meaning as homework, choose a paragraph from a currently or soon-to-be assigned book that contains at least one word that is likely unfamiliar to students. Invite them to study the passage and infer what the unfamiliar word(s) means. Ask them what reasoning they used (context, word construction, etc.) to arrive at this conclusion, and have them use a dictionary or other appropriate reference material to verify their deduction.
Word Construction Lessons
View the videos on suffixes and prefixes, adjectives and adverbs, and patterns of word changes in class. Present some sentences with a blank where a word belongs, accompanied by multiple-choice options of different forms of the same root word (e.g., presume, presumption, presumptive). Ask students to fill in the blank with the correct word. Do a few of these together as a class; then, provide the students with a new list of sentences, and ask them to complete them by themselves.
Lessons in Passive and Active Voice
Watch the video lesson on sentence clarity as a class. Then provide students with a short paragraph. Ask them to identify all the sentences written in passive voice and rewrite them so they use active voice.
1. What is Inference? - How to Infer Intended Meaning
In this lesson, we will define the terms inference and intended meaning. We will then discuss what steps to take when making inferences in literature.
2. Constructing Meaning with Context Clues, Prior Knowledge & Word Structure
In this lesson, you will learn how readers use prior knowledge, context clues and word structure to aid their understanding of what they read. Explore these strategies through examples from literature and everyday life.
3. Reading Strategies Using Visualization
In this lesson, we will define visualization. We will then discuss why this step is important, how we can visualize, and when you should visualize. Finally, we will look at a sample from a poem and practice visualizing.
4. How to Use Context to Determine the Meaning of Words
With diligence and intrepid ingenuity, you can use context to ascertain the purport of a word. In other words, in this lesson, we'll find out how to use context to figure out what words mean.
5. How Word Choice and Language Sets the Tone of Your Essay
In this video, we will discuss how word choice sets the tone for your essay. This includes letting the reader know if you are angry, happy or even attempting to refrain from bias. These tools bring your 'voice' into your writing.
6. Sentence Clarity: How to Write Clear Sentences
Just because you know a good sentence when you read one doesn't mean that you think it's easy to put one together - forget about writing an essay's worth. Learn how to write clear sentences and turn rough ones into gems.
7. What is Structure in Writing and How Does it Affect Meaning?
In this lesson, we will define the role of structure in literature. From there, we will look at the different ways to structure fiction and how it affects the meaning.
8. Sentence Structure: Identify and Avoid 'Mixed Structure' Sentences
A mixed structure sentence is a common error that occurs when a writer starts a sentence with one structure but switches to a different structure in the middle of the sentence. This video will teach you how to spot and avoid this type of error.
9. How to Structure Sentences in an Essay
Sometimes we know what we want to write, but we are just unsure of the best way to write it. In this video, we will cover ways to structure sentences in an essay.
10. How to Write Better by Improving Your Sentence Structure
Often times in writing, we know what we want to say, but it doesn't seem to come out right. In this video we will learn the steps needed to improve your writing with better sentence structure.
11. What Are Nouns? - Definition, Types & Examples
A noun is a part of speech that identifies a person, place, thing, or idea. In this lesson, in addition to learning how to identify nouns, you'll learn the difference between proper and common nouns and a bit about how nouns function in sentences.
12. What Are Pronouns? - Types, Examples & Definition
In this lesson, we'll learn about pronouns in general, and take a look at two types of personal pronouns: subjective case and objective case pronouns. Knowing which case of pronoun you'll need can help you avoid common pronoun errors.
13. Action, Linking and Auxiliary Verbs: Definitions, Functions & Examples
Do you think that a verb is just a verb? Check out this lesson to learn about the differences among action verbs, linking verbs, and auxiliary/helping verbs.
14. Comparison of Adjectives & Adverbs: Examples, Sentences & Exercises
Adjectives and adverbs are descriptive words that allow our sentences to be much more specific and interesting than they would be without them. This lesson covers the rules for using adjectives and adverbs correctly, including those used in comparisons.
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Other chapters within the Common Core ELA - Language Grades 9-10: Standards course