About This Chapter
Measuring the Characteristics of Stars - Chapter Summary
In this chapter, you'll strengthen your familiarity with Kirchhoff's three laws and understand spectroscopy. You can also get a review of how the distance to a star can be found and check out a lesson that delves into the Doppler Effect in relation to star spectra. Upon completion of this chapter, you'll have had the opportunity to review:
- Different kinds of telescopes
- The spectral sequence
- How to find the temperature of a star
- Chemical characteristics of stars
- Stars' energy generation methods
- Major factors that influence the equilibrium of stars
- The relationship between brightness and luminosity
- Comparisons of star brightness using the magnitude scale
Each video lesson covers its targeted topics in about 5 minutes. Video tags enable you to quickly find major segments you might want to review at another time. All of the chapter's lessons feature practice quizzes so that you can double-check your understanding of the main topics.
1. Types of Telescopes: Radio, Reflecting & Refracting Telescopes
Learn about the different types of telescopes that astronomers use: X-ray, radio, gamma ray, reflecting and refracting. Learn what the differences are between them and what different things they show us about the universe.
2. How to Find the Size of a Star
This lesson will tell you how astronomers figure out the size of stars. You'll learn it has to do with a star's temperature, luminosity, and a cool thing known as the H-R diagram.
3. Electron Transitions & Spectral Lines
This lesson discusses how electrons transition between energy levels, why they do this, how photons are involved, how absorption and emission spectra come into play, and what the Lyman, Balmer, and Paschen series are.
4. Measuring The Distance to a Star
This lesson will tell you how astronomers can measure the distance to a star and how it relates to the way surveyors measure distances to landmarks right here on Earth.
5. The Brightness Of Stars
This lesson will define and describe important terms related to a star's brightness, including luminosity, intrinsic brightness, apparent brightness, and more.
6. Relating a Star's Brightness to Luminosity
This lesson will explore how luminosity, apparent brightness, and distance are related to one another using the inverse square law. You'll also learn how luminosity can be gauged based on distance and apparent brightness.
7. Determining the Temperature of a Star
This lesson will explain to you the concepts of a spectrum, electromagnetic radiation, the temperature of a faraway star and how that relates to something known as a blackbody curve and Wien's law.
8. Spectroscopy and the Chemical Characteristics of Stars
This lesson will explain how astronomers find out the chemical composition of a distant star using spectral lines and spectroscopy, and how this relates to atoms, electrons, and photons.
9. Kirchhoff's Laws and Star Spectra
This lesson will define for you three laws associated with spectra and how they relate to the composition of stars, as well as how they relate to atoms and wavelengths.
10. The Doppler Effect and Star Spectra
This lesson will outline what the Doppler effect is using a very familiar example, then parlay that knowledge into understanding how the Doppler effect is used in astronomy.
11. How Stars Generate Energy
This lesson will tell you how the sun generates energy, energy that depends on much more than the superficial notion of nuclear fusion. We'll delve deeply into this process by exploring protons, positrons, gamma rays, and a whole lot more!
12. The Spectral Sequence and Temperature
This lesson will talk about spectral classes, spectral types, and the spectral sequence. We will break down each spectral class and point out some important characteristics of each.
13. Forces Keeping Stars in a Stable Equilibrium
This lesson will outline for you the forces and properties that keep stars stable. They include temperature, pressure, gravity, density, and nuclear reactions.
14. Using the Magnitude Scale to Compare Star Brightness
This lesson will describe the magnitude scale, apparent brightness, and apparent visual magnitude. It will also teach you how to compare the brightness of stars.
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Other chapters within the NYSTCE Earth Science (008): Practice and Study Guide course
- Foundations of Scientific Inquiry
- Earth's Spheres & Internal Structure
- The Earth and Sky
- The Moon
- The Sun's Structure, Energy and Cycle
- The Orbits of Celestial Bodies
- Newton's Laws of Motion and Gravitation
- Star Types & Significance
- Layout, Formation and Dating of the Solar System
- Characteristics of Our Solar System's Planets
- The Milky Way Galaxy
- Key Theories of the Universe
- The Atmospheric Cycle
- Solar Radiation and Energy
- Atmospheric Moisture and Effects on Precipitation
- Air Distribution & Movement
- Weather Forecasting & Analysis
- Weather Conditions and Disturbances
- Causes and Effects of Climate Change
- Minerals & Rocks
- Earth's Tectonic Plates
- Weathering & Erosion
- Geologic Time & Dating
- Water Cycle & Balance
- Flowing Water
- Ground Water Systems
- Oceans & Shorelines
- Basics of Coastal Hazards
- NYSTCE Earth Science Flashcards