About This Chapter
Mechanisms of Genetic Change - Chapter Summary
In this chapter, you learn about what causes the chromosomes in a cell to change and what the sometimes dangerous outcomes of this process can be. Other lesson topics review the concepts of nonsense, missense and silent mutations as they apply to genetic change. Not all genetic mutations are equal, and a further study of germline and somatic mutations shows you how this works. After you review this chapter, you should be able to:
- Describe the process and purpose of chromosomal rearrangement
- Explain how frameshift mutations affect polypeptide formation
- Discuss how transposons affect disease, antibiotic resistance and mutations
Take the self-assessment quizzes before you review the lessons as a test prep to gauge how well you might do on an exam. Or, take them after you've worked through the lessons to ensure you understand all the subjects you've reviewed. If you need to go back and re-watch just one part of a video lesson, the video tabs feature allows you to jump right where you'd like to go.
1. Chromosomal Rearrangement
Have you ever switched out one thing for another or traded places with someone? Our chromosomes can do this, too. This lesson tells you how as we go over chromosomal rearrangements!
2. Abnormal Chromosome Number & Structure
The chromosomes inside of a person's cells can undergo structural changes or changes in number, causing severe and fatal disorders. In this lesson, we'll outline what these changes are and discuss examples of some of these disorders.
3. Effects of Frameshift Mutations: Definitions and Examples
What is a frameshift in genetic translation? How can a frameshift mutation change a protein? In this lesson, learn about the codon reading frame and how frameshift mutations cause serious problems for polypeptide formation.
4. Effects of Mutations on Protein Function: Missense, Nonsense, and Silent Mutations
How does a tiny point mutation change the way a protein works? What are the consequences of base substitutions? In this lesson, we'll use an imaginary creature to explore missense, nonsense and silent mutations.
5. Transposons: Definition & Types
Explore the motile world of genetics by learning more about the 'jumping genes' called transposons. Plentiful in many organisms, transposons have an active role in mutations, antibiotic resistance, and disease.
6. The Difference Between Germline & Somatic Mutations
Cell mutate and different types of cells give rise to mutations with different effects. In this lesson, you will learn how a germinal mutation differs from a somatic mutation and which type can be passed down to future generations.
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Other chapters within the HSC Biology: Exam Prep & Syllabus course
- Scientific Investigations Overview
- Scientific Validity
- Data Collection & Analysis in Science
- Scientific Presentations
- Internal & External Environments
- Gas & Nutrient Transport in Animals & Plants
- Regulation in Animals & Plants
- Chromosomal Structure & Inheritance
- Mendel & Gene Expression
- DNA Replication & Protein Synthesis
- Recombinant DNA Technology
- Biotechnology Basics
- Genetic Engineering & Reproductive Technologies
- Classification Hierarchy
- Health & Disease
- Immune Response
- Nervous System & Sensory Mechanisms
- Anatomy & Disorders of the Eye
- Sound & Hearing
- Evolutionary Change
- Time & Human Evolution
- History of Botany
- Photosynthesis Basics
- HSC Biology Flashcards