About This Chapter
Medical Microbiology - Chapter Summary
This chapter dives into viral classification and variety, examining the forms in which viruses can appear as well as the infections and diseases they can cause. When you finish reviewing with this chapter, you'll have reviewed viral shapes, how viruses mutate, candidiasis, and all of the following:
- The viral life cycle
- Replication of DNA and RNA viruses
- Bacteriophage lytic and lysogenic viral cycles
- Flu viruses and HIV
- Immune system evasion
- Cryptococcus neoformans and gattii
- Histoplasmosis and aspergillosis
- Pneumocystis pneumonia
Each lesson includes both a video and transcript of the material, allowing you to decide which mode of studying works best for you. Video watchers will be able to jump around main points of each lesson using the timeline feature, while readers of the transcripts can look for words in bold to identify key terms and topics.
1. What Are Viruses? - Definition, Structure & Function
In this lesson, you'll learn some historical facts about viruses and the material they are composed of. Find out more as we review the capsid, nucleic acids, the viral envelope, viruses, virions, bacteriophages and virology.
2. Shapes of a Virus: Helical, Icosahedral, Prolate, Complex & Enveloped
Learn about the different shapes viruses can have, such as helical, icosahedral, prolate, complex and enveloped. Find out why one shape is particularly useful from an energetic standpoint.
3. The Life Cycle of a Virus: How Viruses Live, Attack & Replicate
Find out how viruses infect and replicate as we explore the important steps of the virus life cycle, including attachment, uncoating, penetration, replication, and release, as well as the lysogenic and lytic cycles.
4. Classification of Viruses: Viral Genome and Replication Scheme
Find out how viruses are classified based on their being double-stranded, single-stranded, positive-sense, negative-sense, or by having something called reverse transcriptase.
5. Replication of DNA Viruses
This lesson will give you a basic overview of how DNA viruses replicate inside of a host cell. We will cover the entry, integration, replication and release of DNA viruses.
6. Replication of RNA Viruses
This lesson will give you a basic overview of how different types of RNA viruses replicate inside of an animal cell. We will cover the essence of being double-stranded and retroviruses, as well as positive-and negative-sense RNA viruses.
7. How Viruses Mutate: Antigenic Drift and Antigenic Shift
This lesson will discuss the major ways by which viruses, notably the flu virus, mutates. We will talk about recombination, reassortment, antigenic drift, antigenic shift, and more!
8. Viruses: Bacteriophage Lytic and Lysogenic Cycles
Viruses are generally not only our enemy but also the enemy of many other organisms. Bacteriophages are viruses that infect specific bacteria. In this lesson, we'll discuss their basic structure and infection cycle.
9. Flu Viruses, HIV and Immune System Evasion
Why is it that our immune systems can protect us from some viruses but not others? We've eradicated smallpox by using vaccines, so why do influenza and HIV remain such dangerous health risks? In this lesson about viruses, we'll explore these questions and learn how influenza and HIV continue to evade the human immune system.
10. Cryptococcus neoformans and gattii: Infections & Symptoms
A fungus that commonly grows on pigeon droppings can cause meningitis. In this lesson, we will look at the yeast Cryptococcus, and its ability to cause disease in humans unfortunate enough to breathe it in.
11. What is Histoplasmosis? - Infections Caused by Histoplasma capsulatum
Raising backyard chickens can be a fun and rewarding experience, but you might end up raising more than just chicks. In this lesson, we will explore the world of Histoplasma capsulatum, a pathogenic fungus that can grow on chicken feces.
12. What is Aspergillosis? - Fungal Infections & Symptoms
Human fungal diseases are rare and usually don't cause symptoms in healthy people. In this lesson, we'll discuss Aspergillus, a disease-causing mold, and the different infections and symptoms it can cause in susceptible hosts.
13. Pneumocystis Pneumonia: Infections Caused by Pneumocystis jiroveci
AIDS patients have a lot to worry about. In this lesson we examine Pneumocystis jiroveci, the fungal pathogen that can cause life-threatening pneumonia in AIDS patients due to their compromised immune function.
14. Candidiasis: Yeast Infections Caused by Candida albicans
Your body is teeming with microorganisms that normally live in perfect balance without you ever knowing they are there. Candida albicans is one fungal member of this group, but upset the balance and Candida can cause some very unpleasant diseases.
15. What is Ringworm? - Infections Caused by Trichophyton & Microsporum Fungi
Ringworm is a common pathogen that infects the skin, hair, and nails of people and animals. This disease is not caused by a worm, however. In this lesson we will examine the fungus that causes ringworm and its impact on human health.
Earning College Credit
Did you know… We have over 200 college courses that prepare you to earn credit by exam that is accepted by over 1,500 colleges and universities. You can test out of the first two years of college and save thousands off your degree. Anyone can earn credit-by-exam regardless of age or education level.
To learn more, visit our Earning Credit Page
Transferring credit to the school of your choice
Not sure what college you want to attend yet? Study.com has thousands of articles about every imaginable degree, area of study and career path that can help you find the school that's right for you.
Other chapters within the PCAT: Study Guide & Test Prep course
- Verbal Ability: Analogies
- Verbal Ability: Sentence Completion
- Biology: Cell Structure & Division
- Biology: Cellular Processes
- Biology: DNA & Enzymes
- Biology: Genetics
- Animal & Human Behavior
- Biology: Evolution & Natural Selection
- Speciation, Extinction & Taxonomy
- Biology: Intro to Nutrition
- Biology: Nutrition - Carbohydrates
- Biology: Nutrition - Lipids
- Protein in Nutrition
- Minerals & Nutrition
- Vitamins in Nutrition
- Biology: Diseases & Prevention
- Biology: Types of Diseases
- Microrganisms & Microbial Ecology
- Microbiology: The Immune System
- Structures of Human Anatomy & Physiology
- Human Skeletal System
- Muscular System
- The Human Nervous System
- Human Circulatory System Basics
- The Circulatory System, Blood & Blood Vessels
- Respiratory System
- Urinary Systems & Structures
- Functions of the Human Digestive System
- Overview of the Endocrine System
- Male Reproductive System
- Female Reproductive System
- Integumentary System Overview
- The Five Senses of the Human Body
- The Atom and Atomic Theory
- Chemical Bonding in Physical Chemistry
- Types of Reactions in Chemistry
- Equilibrium in Chemistry
- Overview of Stoichiometry
- Properties of Liquids & Solids
- Gas Laws
- Kinetics & Thermodynamics
- Elements, Compounds & Mixtures
- Nuclear Processes
- Organic & Inorganic Chemistry
- Reading Comprehension & Analysis
- Fractions & Percents
- Solving Algebraic Equations
- Linear Equations Overview
- Inequalities Overview
- Understanding the Basics of Functions
- Interpreting Tables & Plots
- Basic Statistics & Probability
- Linear Regression & Correlation
- Solving Exponential & Logarithmic Functions
- Complex Numbers & Vectors
- Limits of Functions
- Overview of Continuity
- Rate of Change & Calculating Derivatives
- Integrals & Antiderivatives
- PCAT Flashcards