Ch 19: Medical Microbiology

About This Chapter

This chapter discusses several key topics within the study of medical microbiology. Lessons focus on a variety of viral forms and processes, defining and classifying them while exploring the related cycles and bodily responses.

Medical Microbiology - Chapter Summary

This chapter dives into viral classification and variety, examining the forms in which viruses can appear as well as the infections and diseases they can cause. When you finish reviewing with this chapter, you'll have reviewed viral shapes, how viruses mutate, candidiasis, and all of the following:

  • The viral life cycle
  • Replication of DNA and RNA viruses
  • Bacteriophage lytic and lysogenic viral cycles
  • Flu viruses and HIV
  • Immune system evasion
  • Cryptococcus neoformans and gattii
  • Histoplasmosis and aspergillosis
  • Pneumocystis pneumonia
  • Ringworm

Each lesson includes both a video and transcript of the material, allowing you to decide which mode of studying works best for you. Video watchers will be able to jump around main points of each lesson using the timeline feature, while readers of the transcripts can look for words in bold to identify key terms and topics.

15 Lessons in Chapter 19: Medical Microbiology
Test your knowledge with a 30-question chapter practice test
What Are Viruses? - Definition, Structure & Function

1. What Are Viruses? - Definition, Structure & Function

In this lesson, you'll learn some historical facts about viruses and the material they are composed of. Find out more as we review the capsid, nucleic acids, the viral envelope, viruses, virions, bacteriophages and virology.

Shapes of a Virus: Helical, Icosahedral, Prolate, Complex & Enveloped

2. Shapes of a Virus: Helical, Icosahedral, Prolate, Complex & Enveloped

Learn about the different shapes viruses can have, such as helical, icosahedral, prolate, complex and enveloped. Find out why one shape is particularly useful from an energetic standpoint.

The Life Cycle of a Virus: How Viruses Live, Attack & Replicate

3. The Life Cycle of a Virus: How Viruses Live, Attack & Replicate

Find out how viruses infect and replicate as we explore the important steps of the virus life cycle, including attachment, uncoating, penetration, replication, and release, as well as the lysogenic and lytic cycles.

Classification of Viruses: Viral Genome and Replication Scheme

4. Classification of Viruses: Viral Genome and Replication Scheme

Find out how viruses are classified based on their being double-stranded, single-stranded, positive-sense, negative-sense, or by having something called reverse transcriptase.

Replication of DNA Viruses

5. Replication of DNA Viruses

This lesson will give you a basic overview of how DNA viruses replicate inside of a host cell. We will cover the entry, integration, replication and release of DNA viruses.

Replication of RNA Viruses

6. Replication of RNA Viruses

This lesson will give you a basic overview of how different types of RNA viruses replicate inside of an animal cell. We will cover the essence of being double-stranded and retroviruses, as well as positive-and negative-sense RNA viruses.

How Viruses Mutate: Antigenic Drift and Antigenic Shift

7. How Viruses Mutate: Antigenic Drift and Antigenic Shift

This lesson will discuss the major ways by which viruses, notably the flu virus, mutates. We will talk about recombination, reassortment, antigenic drift, antigenic shift, and more!

Viruses: Bacteriophage Lytic and Lysogenic Cycles

8. Viruses: Bacteriophage Lytic and Lysogenic Cycles

Viruses are generally not only our enemy but also the enemy of many other organisms. Bacteriophages are viruses that infect specific bacteria. In this lesson, we'll discuss their basic structure and infection cycle.

Flu Viruses, HIV and Immune System Evasion

9. Flu Viruses, HIV and Immune System Evasion

Why is it that our immune systems can protect us from some viruses but not others? We've eradicated smallpox by using vaccines, so why do influenza and HIV remain such dangerous health risks? In this lesson about viruses, we'll explore these questions and learn how influenza and HIV continue to evade the human immune system.

Cryptococcus neoformans and gattii: Infections & Symptoms

10. Cryptococcus neoformans and gattii: Infections & Symptoms

A fungus that commonly grows on pigeon droppings can cause meningitis. In this lesson, we will look at the yeast Cryptococcus, and its ability to cause disease in humans unfortunate enough to breathe it in.

What is Histoplasmosis? - Infections Caused by Histoplasma capsulatum

11. What is Histoplasmosis? - Infections Caused by Histoplasma capsulatum

Raising backyard chickens can be a fun and rewarding experience, but you might end up raising more than just chicks. In this lesson, we will explore the world of Histoplasma capsulatum, a pathogenic fungus that can grow on chicken feces.

What is Aspergillosis? - Fungal Infections & Symptoms

12. What is Aspergillosis? - Fungal Infections & Symptoms

Human fungal diseases are rare and usually don't cause symptoms in healthy people. In this lesson, we'll discuss Aspergillus, a disease-causing mold, and the different infections and symptoms it can cause in susceptible hosts.

Pneumocystis Pneumonia: Infections Caused by Pneumocystis jiroveci

13. Pneumocystis Pneumonia: Infections Caused by Pneumocystis jiroveci

AIDS patients have a lot to worry about. In this lesson we examine Pneumocystis jiroveci, the fungal pathogen that can cause life-threatening pneumonia in AIDS patients due to their compromised immune function.

Candidiasis: Yeast Infections Caused by Candida albicans

14. Candidiasis: Yeast Infections Caused by Candida albicans

Your body is teeming with microorganisms that normally live in perfect balance without you ever knowing they are there. Candida albicans is one fungal member of this group, but upset the balance and Candida can cause some very unpleasant diseases.

What is Ringworm? - Infections Caused by Trichophyton & Microsporum Fungi

15. What is Ringworm? - Infections Caused by Trichophyton & Microsporum Fungi

Ringworm is a common pathogen that infects the skin, hair, and nails of people and animals. This disease is not caused by a worm, however. In this lesson we will examine the fungus that causes ringworm and its impact on human health.

Chapter Practice Exam
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Practice Final Exam
Test your knowledge of the entire course with a 50 question practice final exam.
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