About This Chapter
Memory and Cognition - Chapter Summary and Learning Objectives
Creating memories is an important way that our brains help us navigate the world and know how to think about things. In this chapter, you'll explore different types of memory, ways in which memories are formed, and how we use them after we have them. You'll also learn about how babies begin to understand the world through their still-developing senses and by learning language. Cognition involves processes like attention, reasoning, and decision making, and these videos will explain some of the ways our minds handle all the information we gather from our surroundings. After completing this chapter, you should be able to:
- Name types of memory and ways memories are organized
- Define cognition and its components
- Explain how we use schema to organize the world
- Discuss what makes up a language
- List the stages of language and sensory development in infants
|What is Cognition?||Learn the definition of cognition, including how inductive and deductive reasoning differ.|
|What is Language?||Explore the tenets of what makes language to see how phonemes and morphemes are building blocks to meaning.|
|Language Acquisition||Understand the stages by which babies learn to make sounds, words, and sentences.|
|Information Processing||Learn how information is processed and memory is created through encoding, storage, and retrieval.|
|Categorizing Memory||Explore the different kinds of memory we use to store information, sensations, and perceptions.|
|Attention and Top-Down vs. Bottom-Up Processing||Understand why we devote our attention to some things and not others, while also looking at the two processes through which we focus our attention.|
|Perceptual Development||Explore how infants' senses develop after birth, including which sense takes longer than the others to develop.|
|Improving Short-Term Memory||Learn about George Miller's 'magical number' and methods for remembering new information in the short term.|
|Improving Long-Term Memory||Explore various ways you can learn new information so that it can be recalled at any time.|
|Memory Distortion||Learn about schemas, how they help up classify the world, and problems that might arise from schematic memories.|
|Heuristics||Explore techniques for drawing conclusions and the different types of heuristics we use.|
|Using Concepts to Classify the World||Understand what concepts are and how we use them to help up navigate the world.|
1. What is Cognition?
People think in different ways, and thoughts are an important part of who you are. In this lesson, we'll look at cognition, including two common types of cognition: reasoning and heuristics.
2. What Is Language?
Have you ever wondered how human language is constructed to form meaning? Why is language more complex than animal calls? In this lesson, we'll take a look at the basic units language and learn how meaning is formed.
3. Language Acquisition: Definition, Theories & Stages
Have you ever wondered how humans are able to learn, process, comprehend and speak a language? In this lesson on language acquisition, we'll take a look at some distinctions between languages and learn how babies come to understand and speak a language.
4. Information Processing: Encoding, Storage & Retrieval
How does your brain remember information and recall it later? In this lesson, you'll look at the steps your brain takes as it processes data from short-term memory and stores it as long-term memory.
5. Categories of Memory: Sensory & Long-Term
Did you know that there are several types of memories? How does your brain keep track of them all? In this lesson, as you observe your surroundings at an art museum, you'll come to understand how your brain categorizes memory so you can remember your experiences.
6. Attention and Top-Down vs. Bottom-Up Processing
Are you a big-picture person or do you get caught up in the details? Explore two ways that you can use your cognitive resources to focus your attention. This lesson provides both the details and the big picture for top-down and bottom-up processing.
7. Perceptual Development in Infants
Why are some senses more developed than others for a newborn? You'll learn which senses are initially important for infants to bond with and recognize their mothers and which one is still in development after birth.
8. George Miller's Psychological Study to Improve Short-Term Memory
Wouldn't it be nice to improve your short-term memory? According to one psychological study, there are, in fact, ways you can organize sets of new information to make them easier to remember. Based on the study, this lesson examines a method that can increase your short-term memory.
9. Using Psychology to Improve Long-Term Memory
What are some tips for improving your memory? This memorable lesson on memory covers self-referencing, mnemonic devices, spaced repetition and rehearsal. You won't want to cram for exams once you learn these better ways to improve your long-term memory!
10. Memory Distortion: Source Amnesia, Misinformation Effect & Choice-Supportive Bias
With all the information we learn and process every day, it can be difficult to remember things accurately. Because of this, our memory can become distorted. In this lesson, we'll learn how our brain can trick us into falsely remembering details of our past experiences.
11. Types of Heuristics: Availability, Representativeness & Base-Rate
Did you know that our brain uses strategies to process information and draw conclusions? Although we're able to reach conclusions through these mental strategies, sometimes, our reasoning can be off. Read on to discover how our brain draws these conclusions and why they can be wrong.
12. Using Concepts to Classify the World
What has wings, feathers, and lives in a nest? That's not a riddle; it's a concept. Watch this lesson to find out more about what concepts are, what a prototype is, and how typicality influences the way you think about the world.
13. Types of Concepts: Superordinate, Subordinate, and Basic
When I say 'home,' what do you picture? Mansion, apartment, or shack? Home, like many other things, is a concept. In this lesson, we'll explore what a concept is and the three general levels of concepts: superordinate, basic, and subordinate.
14. Long-Term Memory: Definition, Types & Examples
Long-term memory consists of the memories that happened more than a few minutes ago. Learn more about long-term memory from real-life examples, and test your knowledge with a quiz.
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Other chapters within the AP Psychology: Exam Prep course
- AP Psychology: History and Development of Modern Psychology
- AP Psychology: Research Methods Used in the Study of Psychology
- AP Psychology: Intelligence Testing
- AP Psychology: Biology in Psychology
- AP Psychology: The 5 Senses & Psychology
- AP Psychology: Sleep and Other States of Consciousness
- AP Psychology: Learning & Conditioning
- AP Psychology: Emotion
- AP Psychology: Motivation in Psychology
- AP Psychology: Child Development in Psychology
- AP Psychology: Personality Development and Theories
- AP Psychology: Study of Social Psychology
- AP Psychology: Abnormal Psychology
- AP Psychology: Treatment Methods for Psychological Disorders
- AP Psychology: Test Strategy
- AP Psychology Flashcards