About This Chapter
Memory - Chapter Summary
By studying this chapter, you will refresh your knowledge of memory and maybe learn some facts about information processing that you didn't already know. Our short video lessons explain how memory works and how the brain categorizes memories.
You'll also take a look at attention, how the mind uses concepts to classify things and explore ways to improve memory. After watching all of the chapter's video lessons, you should be prepared to:
- Distinguish between top-down and bottom-up processing
- Explain the two-store model of memory
- Recognize the impact of aging on attentional control and processing speed
- Describe how memory and information processing declines in middle adulthood
- List the signs of dementia and Alzheimer's disease
- Discuss ways to improve short-term and long-term memory
- Define memory distortion
- Identify the types of heuristics
- Provide examples of mnemonic devices
Whether you are more of an audio or a visual learner, our lessons can help strengthen your understanding of memory. We provide entertaining videos full of facts and examples. The videos contain tags that you can use to go back and watch certain key points. The lessons also include transcripts of the videos; some of these have links to other text lessons containing additional information about major terms. Once you've studied each lesson thoroughly, take the self-assessment quiz to see how well you've grasped the material.
1. Categories of Memory: Sensory & Long-Term
Did you know that there are several types of memories? How does your brain keep track of them all? In this lesson, as you observe your surroundings at an art museum, you'll come to understand how your brain categorizes memory so you can remember your experiences.
2. Attention and Top-Down vs. Bottom-Up Processing
Are you a big-picture person or do you get caught up in the details? Explore two ways that you can use your cognitive resources to focus your attention. This lesson provides both the details and the big picture for top-down and bottom-up processing.
3. The Two-Store Model of Memory: Types of Memory and Storage
Do you remember your first day of school? This lesson discusses the foundational concepts behind all memories, including basic types of memory and the process all memories must go through for success: encoding, storage and retrieval.
4. Understanding Memory: Recognition, Recall & Interference
Memory involves fascinating and complicated processes. Learn the basics of two of the major ways we access information from the past, and what challenges we face in retaining everything we learn.
5. Attentional Control, Processing Speed, and the Effect of Aging
In this lesson, we look at the overlap between attention and processing speed as well as how age influences them. This includes the process of heavy mental effort becoming more automated.
6. Memory and Information Processing in Adults
During middle age, many people notice that they aren't as mentally sharp as they once were. During this lesson, we'll look at cognitive abilities that decline in middle adulthood, including information processing and working memory.
7. Dementia and Alzheimer's: Differences & Impact on Aging
In this lesson, you will learn what dementia is and is not through definitions and examples. You will also examine Alzheimer's disease, the leading cause of dementia and memory loss in the elderly.
8. George Miller's Psychological Study to Improve Short-Term Memory
Wouldn't it be nice to improve your short-term memory? According to one psychological study, there are, in fact, ways you can organize sets of new information to make them easier to remember. Based on the study, this lesson examines a method that can increase your short-term memory.
9. Using Psychology to Improve Long-Term Memory
What are some tips for improving your memory? This memorable lesson on memory covers self-referencing, mnemonic devices, spaced repetition and rehearsal. You won't want to cram for exams once you learn these better ways to improve your long-term memory!
10. Memory Distortion: Source Amnesia, Misinformation Effect & Choice-Supportive Bias
With all the information we learn and process every day, it can be difficult to remember things accurately. Because of this, our memory can become distorted. In this lesson, we'll learn how our brain can trick us into falsely remembering details of our past experiences.
11. Types of Heuristics: Availability, Representativeness & Base-Rate
Did you know that our brain uses strategies to process information and draw conclusions? Although we're able to reach conclusions through these mental strategies, sometimes, our reasoning can be off. Read on to discover how our brain draws these conclusions and why they can be wrong.
12. Improving Retrieval of Memories: Mnemonic Devices
When you have to study for a test and you need to remember a large amount of information, what strategies do you use to help your memory? These strategies are called mnemonic devices. This lesson covers several well-known mnemonic devices, such as chunking, the method of loci and the keyword technique.
13. Using Concepts to Classify the World
What has wings, feathers, and lives in a nest? That's not a riddle; it's a concept. Watch this lesson to find out more about what concepts are, what a prototype is, and how typicality influences the way you think about the world.
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