About This Chapter
Below is a sample breakdown of the Metabolic Derangements chapter into a 5-day school week. Based on the pace of your course, you may need to adapt the lesson plan to fit your needs.
|Day||Topics||Key Terms and Concepts Covered|
|Location, components and function of the endocrine glands;|
Description of the pituitary gland, its location and purpose;
Location and purpose of the thyroid gland, calcitonin, T3, T4, thyroid-stimulating hormone;
Function of the parathyroid glands, location, parathyroid hormone (PTH);
Location of the adrenal glands, their function, corticosteroids, mineralocorticoids
Type 1 diabetes;
Types 2 diabetes;
|Anatomy and functions of the pancreas, how it produces insulin;|
Risk factors, signs and treatment of Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes, consequences of the disease;
Definition of diabetic ketoacidosis, causes, physical consequences
|Wednesday|| Problems with ADH;|
Simmond's disease and Sheehan's syndrome;
|Definition and function of antidiuretic hormone (ADH), causes and signs of diabetes insipidus and syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion;|
Definition and causes of panhypopituitarism, overview of Simmond's disease and Sheehan's syndrome;
Causes and treatment of hyperthyroidism
|Thursday||Graves' disease and Hashimoto's thyroiditis;|
Primary and secondary hyperparathyroidism;
|Causes and treatments of Graves' disease and Hashimoto's thyroiditis, goiter;|
Causes, symptoms, treatment methods for hyperparathyroidism;
Causes of hypoparathyroidism, treatments and effects on the body;
Definition of Cushing's syndrome, its consequences and methods of treatment
|Friday|| Addison's disease;|
|Signs and treatment methods for Addison's disease, why it occurs;|
Causes of hyperaldosteronism, what it does to body functions, treatment;
Androgen excess, signs, treatment methods;
Definition of pheochromocytomas, why they are so dangerous, symptoms, methods of treatment
1. Hormones: Definition, Function & Intro to the Endocrine System
This lesson introduces the endocrine system and provides a brief overview of each endocrine gland. It also provides the definition of hormones and describes their general function inside the body.
2. What Is the Pituitary Gland? - Functions, Hormones & Hypothalamus
In this lesson, we'll discuss the functions of the anterior and posterior portions of the pituitary gland, the hormones they release and the relationship with the hypothalamus.
3. The Thyroid Gland: Functions, Calcitonin & TSH
Your thyroid gland produces the hormones T3 and thyroxine (T4), which play a role in metabolism. Your thyroid also produces calcitonin, which helps regulate blood calcium levels. In this lesson, you will learn about the thyroid gland and its hormones, including how they are regulated by TSH.
4. Parathyroid Gland: Calcium Metabolism, Osteoclasts & PTH
The parathyroid glands are tiny endocrine glands found on the posterior surface of the thyroid gland. In this lesson,, you will learn about the parathyroid glands, and the role parathyroid hormone plays in maintaining normal blood calcium levels.
5. Adrenal Glands: Function, Cortex & Medulla
The adrenal glands sit on top of your kidneys and are comprised of an inner medulla region that is enclosed by the outer adrenal cortex. Both portions of the adrenal gland secrete hormones that regulate body functions and help maintain internal balance.
6. Pancreas: Functions, Anatomy & Insulin Production
The islets of Langerhans within your pancreas produce the hormones insulin and glucagon. In this lesson, you will learn how these hormones regulate your blood sugar level in opposite ways.
7. Type 1 Diabetes: Risk Factors, Signs & Treatment
Diabetes affects 26 million people (nearly 9% of the population) in the United States. But not all cases of diabetes are the same. The focus of this lesson is type 1 diabetes. We'll learn what it is, why it occurs, and how it affects the body in both the short- and long-term.
8. Type 2 Diabetes: Risk Factors, Signs & Treatment
As many as 57 million people in the United States are on the path to becoming diabetic. Over 90% of them will be type 2 diabetics. But, what is this disease, and why has it become so prevalent? This lesson explores the risk factors, symptoms, and treatment of type 2 diabetes.
9. Diabetic Ketoacidosis: A Serious Complication
A balanced body chemistry is crucial for a healthy human body. A sudden drop in pH can cause significant damage to organ systems and even death. This lesson takes a closer look at a condition in which the pH of the body is severely compromised called diabetic ketoacidosis.
10. Problems with ADH: SIADH and Diabetes Insipidus
Humans can live about three weeks without food, but only about three days without water. Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) helps maintain our body's water balance. In this lesson we'll take a look at what happens when there's either too much or too little ADH in the body.
11. Simmonds' Disease and Sheehan's Syndrome
Our pituitary gland is the 'master gland,' the driving part of our endocrine system. In this lesson, we'll look at what happens when the anterior pituitary gland doesn't work properly and distinguish between two resulting conditions called Simmonds' disease and Sheehan's syndrome.
12. Consequences of Pituitary Adenoma
The pituitary gland is the body's 'master gland,' a crucial part of our endocrine system that keeps our body's systems in equilibrium. In this lesson, we'll look at tumors of the pituitary gland, or pituitary adenoma, and how they affect this delicate balance.
13. Hyperthyroidism: Causes, Signs & Treatments
The thyroid gland weighs only about half an ounce, but it drives the metabolism of every cell in our body. In this lesson we'll look at the effects of hyperthyroidism, in which the thyroid gland and its effects on our metabolism are kicked into overdrive.
14. Graves' Disease and Hashimoto's Thyroiditis
Autoimmune diseases occur when the body mistakes its own tissues for pathogens. The results of this self-destruction are very different, even when the body attacks the same system. Here, we'll compare and contrast Graves' disease and Hashimoto's thyroiditis, two autoimmune diseases of the thyroid.
15. Primary and Secondary Hyperparathyroidism
In this lesson, we'll discuss hyperparathyroidism, overactive parathyroid glands, and highlight differences between the primary and secondary forms of the disease.
16. Hypoparathyroidism: Decreased Levels of Parathyroid Hormone
The body's four parathyroid glands are each only about the size of a grain of rice, but we couldn't maintain calcium homeostasis without them. In this lesson, we'll look at hypoparathyroidism, the condition in which the parathyroid glands' function is either low or absent.
17. Cushing's Syndrome: Causes, Signs & Treatments
Cortisol is a hormone necessary to mediate stress. Too much cortisol causes stress rather than alleviates it. In this lesson, we'll talk about Cushing's syndrome, when the body is exposed to too much cortisol over too long of a period of time.
18. Addison's Disease: Causes, Signs & Management
Most people think of steroids as drugs that build muscle. But steroid hormones are a vital part of our endocrine system, and when we can't make these hormones, the results can be life threatening. In this lesson, we'll look at Addison's disease, a condition in which the body can't make the steroid hormones cortisol and aldosterone.
19. Hyperaldosteronism: Causes, Dangers & Treatments
Aldosterone is one of many hormones necessary to help maintain water and sodium balance. In this lesson, we'll discuss hyperaldosteronism, the condition in which the body secretes too much of this important hormone.
20. Adrenal-Genital Hyperplasia
Our bodies depend on hormones to help maintain equilibrium. In this lesson, we'll look at adrenal-genital hyperplasia, a genetic disease in which the body can't successfully make the hormone cortisol.
21. Pheochromocytomas: An Extremely Dangerous Tumor
No one would argue that the body's nervous system is not critical to our survival. So, when something goes awry with the chemical messages this system depends on, it creates a serious problem. In this lesson, we'll look at pheochromocytomas, adrenal gland tumors that affect the function of the sympathetic nervous system.
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