About This Chapter
In this chapter, instructors will guide you through the endocrine system and introduce you to hormones, the pituitary gland, the thyroid gland and the pancreas. You'll learn about risk factors, signs and treatments for various disorders, and diseases. The lessons in this chapter will also cover how the body and organs are affected by hyperparathyroidism and hypoparathyroidism. After completing this chapter, you should be able to identify:
- How hormones function
- Functions of the adrenal glands and parathyroid gland
- Types of diabetes
- Causes and signs of various diseases
- Treatment options
|Hormones: Definition, Function and Intro to the Endocrine System||Examine the endocrine system and learn about endocrine glands. Get the definition of hormones and how they function in the endocrine system.|
|What is the Pituitary Gland? - Functions, Hormones and Hypothalamus||Learn about the relationship between the pituitary gland and the hypothalamus. Examine the basic functions of this gland.|
|The Thyroid Gland: Functions, Calcitonin and TSH||Find out how calcitonin and other hormones are produced by the thyroid gland. Study TSH's role as a regulator of hormones and the thyroid.|
|Parathyroid Gland: Calcium Metabolism, Osteoclasts and PTH||Study the small parathyroid glands and their role in the body. Find out how PTH helps to regulate calcium levels in the blood and the purpose that osteoclasts serve.|
|Adrenal Glands: Function, Cortex and Medulla||Find out where the adrenal glands are located and what they do. Discover the roles that the cortex and medulla play in the body.|
|Pancreas: Functions, Anatomy and Insulin Production||Find out what cells are found within the pancreas and where it's located. Learn how it produces insulin.|
|Type 1 Diabetes: Risk Factors, Signs and Treatment||Learn about the risk factors and etiology of type 1 diabetes. Discover the organs that are impacted by this form of diabetes, treatment methods and long- and short-term effects.|
|Type 2 Diabetes: Risk Factors, Signs and Treatment||Get info on how type 2 diabetes affects the body and what the risk factors are for this condition. Learn what role insulin plays in type 2 diabetes and study glucose, chemistry values and treatments.|
|Diabetic Ketoacidosis: A Serious Complication||Get details on what this condition is and why it occurs. Learn about the signs and treatment options.|
|Problems with ADH: SIADH and Diabetes Insipidus||Find out what these conditions are and which hormones are involved. Learn about clinical signs and treatment.|
|Simmonds' Disease and Sheehan's Syndrome||Learn about panhypopituitarism and its causes. Find out if Simmonds' and Sheehan's are the same disease and learn about treatments and signs for these diseases.|
|Pituitary Adenoma: Causes and Consequences||Learn what an adenoma is and how it affects the pituitary gland. Study symptoms of adenoma and get info on conditions like galactorrhea, amenorrhea and acromegaly.|
|Hyperthyroidism: Causes, Signs and Treatments||Study the causes and major signs of hyperthyroidism and find out what happens to the thyroid. Learn about thyrotoxicosis, T4, goiter and toxic nodular goiter.|
|Grave's Disease and Hashimoto's Thyroiditis||Learn about goiter, tachycardia and exophthalmos. Find out about the cardiovascular changes that occur with these diseases and learn how these diseases can be managed.|
|Primary and Secondary Hyperparathyroidism||Learn about the causes, signs and symptoms of these conditions. Find out how the kidneys, GI tract and bone are affected and get info on electrolyte disturbances that can occur.|
|Hypoparathyroidism: Decreased Levels of Parathyroid Hormone||Find out why this condition occurs and learn about the consequences of hypoparathyroidism on the body and organs. Learn about signs and treatment options.|
|Cushing's Syndrome: Causes, Signs and Treatments||Find out what causes this condition and how it can be treated. Learn about glucocorticoids and hyperadrenocorticism.|
|Addison's Disease: Causes, Signs and Management||Get the definition of this disease and find out why it occurs. Learn about long-term exogenous corticosteroid administration and its impact on the adrenal glands.|
|Hyperaldosteronism: Causes, Dangers and Treatments||Find out what this condition is and how it's treated. Find out if it is dangerous and what causes it.|
|Adrenal-Genital Hyperplasia||Learn about androgen excess and virilization. Find out the causes and treatments for this condition.|
|Pheochromocytomas: An Extremely Dangerous Tumor||Learn about this tumor and the dangers signs associated with it. Find out which hormones are involved and how it can be treated.|
1. Hormones: Definition, Function & Intro to the Endocrine System
This lesson introduces the endocrine system and provides a brief overview of each endocrine gland. It also provides the definition of hormones and describes their general function inside the body.
2. What Is the Pituitary Gland? - Functions, Hormones & Hypothalamus
In this lesson, we'll discuss the functions of the anterior and posterior portions of the pituitary gland, the hormones they release and the relationship with the hypothalamus.
3. The Thyroid Gland: Functions, Calcitonin & TSH
Your thyroid gland produces the hormones T3 and thyroxine (T4), which play a role in metabolism. Your thyroid also produces calcitonin, which helps regulate blood calcium levels. In this lesson, you will learn about the thyroid gland and its hormones, including how they are regulated by TSH.
4. Parathyroid Gland: Calcium Metabolism, Osteoclasts & PTH
The parathyroid glands are tiny endocrine glands found on the posterior surface of the thyroid gland. In this lesson,, you will learn about the parathyroid glands, and the role parathyroid hormone plays in maintaining normal blood calcium levels.
5. Adrenal Glands: Function, Cortex & Medulla
The adrenal glands sit on top of your kidneys and are comprised of an inner medulla region that is enclosed by the outer adrenal cortex. Both portions of the adrenal gland secrete hormones that regulate body functions and help maintain internal balance.
6. Pancreas: Functions, Anatomy & Insulin Production
The islets of Langerhans within your pancreas produce the hormones insulin and glucagon. In this lesson, you will learn how these hormones regulate your blood sugar level in opposite ways.
7. Type 1 Diabetes: Risk Factors, Signs & Treatment
Diabetes affects 26 million people (nearly 9% of the population) in the United States. But not all cases of diabetes are the same. The focus of this lesson is type 1 diabetes. We'll learn what it is, why it occurs, and how it affects the body in both the short- and long-term.
8. Type 2 Diabetes: Risk Factors, Signs & Treatment
As many as 57 million people in the United States are on the path to becoming diabetic. Over 90% of them will be type 2 diabetics. But, what is this disease, and why has it become so prevalent? This lesson explores the risk factors, symptoms, and treatment of type 2 diabetes.
9. Diabetic Ketoacidosis: A Serious Complication
A balanced body chemistry is crucial for a healthy human body. A sudden drop in pH can cause significant damage to organ systems and even death. This lesson takes a closer look at a condition in which the pH of the body is severely compromised called diabetic ketoacidosis.
10. Problems with ADH: SIADH and Diabetes Insipidus
Humans can live about three weeks without food, but only about three days without water. Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) helps maintain our body's water balance. In this lesson we'll take a look at what happens when there's either too much or too little ADH in the body.
11. Simmonds' Disease and Sheehan's Syndrome
Our pituitary gland is the 'master gland,' the driving part of our endocrine system. In this lesson, we'll look at what happens when the anterior pituitary gland doesn't work properly and distinguish between two resulting conditions called Simmonds' disease and Sheehan's syndrome.
12. Consequences of Pituitary Adenoma
The pituitary gland is the body's 'master gland,' a crucial part of our endocrine system that keeps our body's systems in equilibrium. In this lesson, we'll look at tumors of the pituitary gland, or pituitary adenoma, and how they affect this delicate balance.
13. Hyperthyroidism: Causes, Signs & Treatments
The thyroid gland weighs only about half an ounce, but it drives the metabolism of every cell in our body. In this lesson we'll look at the effects of hyperthyroidism, in which the thyroid gland and its effects on our metabolism are kicked into overdrive.
14. Graves' Disease and Hashimoto's Thyroiditis
Autoimmune diseases occur when the body mistakes its own tissues for pathogens. The results of this self-destruction are very different, even when the body attacks the same system. Here, we'll compare and contrast Graves' disease and Hashimoto's thyroiditis, two autoimmune diseases of the thyroid.
15. Primary and Secondary Hyperparathyroidism
In this lesson, we'll discuss hyperparathyroidism, overactive parathyroid glands, and highlight differences between the primary and secondary forms of the disease.
16. Hypoparathyroidism: Decreased Levels of Parathyroid Hormone
The body's four parathyroid glands are each only about the size of a grain of rice, but we couldn't maintain calcium homeostasis without them. In this lesson, we'll look at hypoparathyroidism, the condition in which the parathyroid glands' function is either low or absent.
17. Cushing's Syndrome: Causes, Signs & Treatments
Cortisol is a hormone necessary to mediate stress. Too much cortisol causes stress rather than alleviates it. In this lesson, we'll talk about Cushing's syndrome, when the body is exposed to too much cortisol over too long of a period of time.
18. Addison's Disease: Causes, Signs & Management
Most people think of steroids as drugs that build muscle. But steroid hormones are a vital part of our endocrine system, and when we can't make these hormones, the results can be life threatening. In this lesson, we'll look at Addison's disease, a condition in which the body can't make the steroid hormones cortisol and aldosterone.
19. Hyperaldosteronism: Causes, Dangers & Treatments
Aldosterone is one of many hormones necessary to help maintain water and sodium balance. In this lesson, we'll discuss hyperaldosteronism, the condition in which the body secretes too much of this important hormone.
20. Adrenal-Genital Hyperplasia
Our bodies depend on hormones to help maintain equilibrium. In this lesson, we'll look at adrenal-genital hyperplasia, a genetic disease in which the body can't successfully make the hormone cortisol.
21. Pheochromocytomas: An Extremely Dangerous Tumor
No one would argue that the body's nervous system is not critical to our survival. So, when something goes awry with the chemical messages this system depends on, it creates a serious problem. In this lesson, we'll look at pheochromocytomas, adrenal gland tumors that affect the function of the sympathetic nervous system.
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Other chapters within the Pathophysiology Textbook course
- The Basic Components of Pathophysiology
- The Consequences of an Aberrant Immune System
- The Pathophysiology of Neoplasia
- Skin Related Pathology
- Trauma and Injury to the Nervous System
- Major Disorders Involving the Nervous System
- Congenital Cardiovascular Defects
- Acquired Cardiovascular Abnormalities
- Pathologies of the Respiratory System
- Important Renal Anatomy and Physiology
- Diseases of the Urinary System
- Conditions Affecting the Gastrointestinal System
- Blood Disorders: Anemia
- Hematological Maladies
- Blood Cancers
- Alterations of the Musculoskeletal System
- Reproductive System Disorders
- Clinical Test Results: Electrolytes, Cells, and Blood Proteins
- Clinical Test Results: Organ Function and Health