Ch 8: Metabolism of Nutrients

About This Chapter

Get information on metabolism and various processes of breaking down food. Learn about the effects of feasting and fasting and the metabolic process for alcohol.

Metabolism of Nutrients - Chapter Summary

This chapter's lessons show you what metabolism is and what can influence it. Our instructors go over substrate-level phosphorylation and oxidative phosphorylation, along with the processes of glycogensesis, glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis. You'll learn about protein synthesis in cells and the chemical structure of DNA.

Other lessons look at eicosanoids and cytokines, with information on their function and types. You'll also get information on inborn errors of metabolism. By the end of this chapter, you should be ready to:

  • Show the difference between catabolism and anabolism
  • Explain how feasting and fasting impact cells
  • Relate why cells require protein synthesis
  • Analyze how the body metabolizes alcohol
  • Discuss the three main types of eicosanoids
  • Name the six major types of cytokines and what they do

Led by our expert instructors, these short videos make learning enjoyable. Self-assessment quizzes at the end of every lesson let you figure out what you know and don't know, and the timeline's jump feature makes it simple to review parts of the lessons without having to re-watch the entire video. Still have questions? It's easy to contact the instructor and get personalized help!

11 Lessons in Chapter 8: Metabolism of Nutrients
Test your knowledge with a 30-question chapter practice test
Anabolism and Catabolism: Definitions & Examples

1. Anabolism and Catabolism: Definitions & Examples

Metabolism breaks down large molecules like food into usable energy. This energy drives bodily processes critical to survival. In this video lesson, you will learn about the two forms of metabolism that break down and build up molecules and see examples of each.

Effects of Feasting & Fasting on Cells

2. Effects of Feasting & Fasting on Cells

Your cells use the nutrients from the foods you eat to fuel vital functions. If you eat too much (feast), excessive nutrients get pushed into storage. If you eat too little or not at all (fast), stored nutrients can be pulled out of storage and used to meet your body's needs.

Substrate-level Phosphorylation and Oxidative Phosphorylation

3. Substrate-level Phosphorylation and Oxidative Phosphorylation

Your body is always using energy. This energy, in the form of ATP, is generated within your cells through substrate-level phosphorylation or oxidative phosphorylation. Learn about these processes and the role mitochondria play in making energy.

Glycogenesis, Glycogenolysis, and Gluconeogenesis

4. Glycogenesis, Glycogenolysis, and Gluconeogenesis

Your body uses processes to keep blood glucose levels within the normal range. Learn how your body decreases blood glucose levels through glycogenesis and how it boosts glucose levels through glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis in this lesson.

Protein Synthesis in Cells: Process & Importance

5. Protein Synthesis in Cells: Process & Importance

The DNA of the cell contains the blueprints for all the proteins in the body. These blueprints become proteins with the help of RNA and ribosomes. Follow along with this lesson to learn about the two major phases of protein synthesis: transcription and translation.

Lipogenesis: Process & Function

6. Lipogenesis: Process & Function

Lipogenesis is the process your body uses to convert carbohydrates into fatty acids, which are the building blocks of fats. Fat is an efficient way for your body to store energy. Learn about the importance of acetyl-CoA and insulin in lipogenesis.

Alcohol Metabolism: Process & Effects

7. Alcohol Metabolism: Process & Effects

Alcohol is broken down in the liver with the help of enzymes. Learn how alcohol is converted to the toxic byproduct acetaldehyde before being oxidized into acetate with help from the enzymes alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase in this lesson.

DNA: Chemical Structure of Nucleic Acids & Phosphodiester Bonds

8. DNA: Chemical Structure of Nucleic Acids & Phosphodiester Bonds

In this lesson, you'll discover what nucleotides look like and how they come together to form polynucleotides. We'll also explore nucleic acids and focus on DNA in particular.

Eicosanoids: Definition, Function, Types & Effects

9. Eicosanoids: Definition, Function, Types & Effects

Eicosanoids are often thought of as local hormones. They have a variety of effects on your body. In this lesson, you will learn about the functions of three important eicosanoids: prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes.

What Are Cytokines? - Definition, Types & Function

10. What Are Cytokines? - Definition, Types & Function

Cytokines are a group of proteins made by the immune system that act as chemical messengers. Learn about the functions of different cytokines, including chemokines, interferons, interleukins, lymphokines and tumor necrosis factor.

What Are Inborn Errors of Metabolism?

11. What Are Inborn Errors of Metabolism?

Inborn errors of metabolism are genetic disorders that affect the metabolism of food components. Many of these disorders are difficult to diagnose but must be caught early in order to be treated. Learn about a common disorder, phenylketonuria.

Chapter Practice Exam
Test your knowledge of this chapter with a 30 question practice chapter exam.
Not Taken
Practice Final Exam
Test your knowledge of the entire course with a 50 question practice final exam.
Not Taken

Earning College Credit

Did you know… We have over 200 college courses that prepare you to earn credit by exam that is accepted by over 1,500 colleges and universities. You can test out of the first two years of college and save thousands off your degree. Anyone can earn credit-by-exam regardless of age or education level.

To learn more, visit our Earning Credit Page

Transferring credit to the school of your choice

Not sure what college you want to attend yet? Study.com has thousands of articles about every imaginable degree, area of study and career path that can help you find the school that's right for you.

Support