About This Chapter
Metabolism of Nutrients - Chapter Summary
This chapter's lessons show you what metabolism is and what can influence it. Our instructors go over substrate-level phosphorylation and oxidative phosphorylation, along with the processes of glycogensesis, glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis. You'll learn about protein synthesis in cells and the chemical structure of DNA.
Other lessons look at eicosanoids and cytokines, with information on their function and types. You'll also get information on inborn errors of metabolism. By the end of this chapter, you should be ready to:
- Show the difference between catabolism and anabolism
- Explain how feasting and fasting impact cells
- Relate why cells require protein synthesis
- Analyze how the body metabolizes alcohol
- Discuss the three main types of eicosanoids
- Name the six major types of cytokines and what they do
Led by our expert instructors, these short videos make learning enjoyable. Self-assessment quizzes at the end of every lesson let you figure out what you know and don't know, and the timeline's jump feature makes it simple to review parts of the lessons without having to re-watch the entire video. Still have questions? It's easy to contact the instructor and get personalized help!
1. Anabolism and Catabolism: Definitions & Examples
Metabolism breaks down large molecules like food into usable energy. This energy drives bodily processes critical to survival. In this video lesson, you will learn about the two forms of metabolism that break down and build up molecules and see examples of each.
2. Effects of Feasting & Fasting on Cells
Your cells use the nutrients from the foods you eat to fuel vital functions. If you eat too much (feast), excessive nutrients get pushed into storage. If you eat too little or not at all (fast), stored nutrients can be pulled out of storage and used to meet your body's needs.
3. Substrate-level Phosphorylation and Oxidative Phosphorylation
Your body is always using energy. This energy, in the form of ATP, is generated within your cells through substrate-level phosphorylation or oxidative phosphorylation. Learn about these processes and the role mitochondria play in making energy.
4. Glycogenesis, Glycogenolysis, and Gluconeogenesis
Your body uses processes to keep blood glucose levels within the normal range. Learn how your body decreases blood glucose levels through glycogenesis and how it boosts glucose levels through glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis in this lesson.
5. Protein Synthesis in Cells: Process & Importance
The DNA of the cell contains the blueprints for all the proteins in the body. These blueprints become proteins with the help of RNA and ribosomes. Follow along with this lesson to learn about the two major phases of protein synthesis: transcription and translation.
6. Lipogenesis: Process & Function
Lipogenesis is the process your body uses to convert carbohydrates into fatty acids, which are the building blocks of fats. Fat is an efficient way for your body to store energy. Learn about the importance of acetyl-CoA and insulin in lipogenesis.
7. Alcohol Metabolism: Process & Effects
Alcohol is broken down in the liver with the help of enzymes. Learn how alcohol is converted to the toxic byproduct acetaldehyde before being oxidized into acetate with help from the enzymes alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase in this lesson.
8. DNA: Chemical Structure of Nucleic Acids & Phosphodiester Bonds
In this lesson, you'll discover what nucleotides look like and how they come together to form polynucleotides. We'll also explore nucleic acids and focus on DNA in particular.
9. Eicosanoids: Definition, Function, Types & Effects
Eicosanoids are often thought of as local hormones. They have a variety of effects on your body. In this lesson, you will learn about the functions of three important eicosanoids: prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes.
10. What Are Cytokines? - Definition, Types & Function
Cytokines are a group of proteins made by the immune system that act as chemical messengers. Learn about the functions of different cytokines, including chemokines, interferons, interleukins, lymphokines and tumor necrosis factor.
11. What Are Inborn Errors of Metabolism?
Inborn errors of metabolism are genetic disorders that affect the metabolism of food components. Many of these disorders are difficult to diagnose but must be caught early in order to be treated. Learn about a common disorder, phenylketonuria.
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Other chapters within the Certified Nutrition Specialist (CNS): Test Prep & Study Guide course
- Fundamental Principles of Nutrition
- Life Cycle Stages & Nutrition
- Energy Balance & The Body
- The Chemical Composition of Nutrients
- Nutritional Biochemistry
- Nutrition-Related Physiology
- Digestion & Nutrient Absorption
- Carbohydrates in Health & Nutrition
- Protein's Role in Nutrition
- Lipids in Health & Nutrition
- Vitamins in Nutrition
- Minerals in Health & Nutrition
- Symptoms of Mineral Deficiency & Toxicity
- Meeting Nutrient Requirements
- Nutritional Assessment
- Clinical Intervention & Monitoring
- Drug & Nutrient Interactions
- Dietary Therapeutics & Behavior Optimization
- The Risk of Eating Disorders to Nutrition
- Professional Issues in Nutrition
- Certified Nutrition Specialist Flashcards