About This Chapter
Michigan Merit Exam: Basic Genetics - Chapter Summary
If your Michigan Merit Exam date is approaching, you'll want to study up for it. In this Basic Genetics chapter, you can learn about the laws that govern the passing of genetic traits from one generation to the next. These brief but comprehensive video lessons cover the following topics:
- Alleles and their properties
- The law of segregation
- The law of independent assortment and its applications
- Types of dominance
- Sex linked and sex limited traits
- Polygenic traits
These lessons were created by experienced instructors who are available to answer your questions as you progress. You can review the video lessons as many times as needed, read the written lesson transcript, or search for a specific topic in the video with the interactive timeline feature. The quizzes and exams will help make sure you are retaining the necessary information for the real test.
Michigan Merit Exam: Basic Genetics Chapter Objectives
The Michigan Merit Exam (MME) is an umbrella term for several tests given to 11th-grade students in Michigan every spring to gauge their academic progress against state standards. This chapter is relevant to one of the tests included in the MME, the computer-based M-Step test. The M-Step science session is estimated to take 50 minutes.
1. Genetics: Heredity, Traits & Chromosomes
We view manipulation of genes in our crops and livestock as a recent development. Yet, man has been manipulating the genetic makeup of his food for thousands of years through cultivation and breeding. This lesson will begin to help you understand how genetics works.
2. Properties of Alleles
What is a dominant phenotype and how will it affect Adrian's flying hamster research? Tune in as he studies homozygous and heterozygous genotypes and the phenotypes they produce.
3. Mendel's First Law: The Law of Segregation
Breaking up is a hard thing to do, but homologous chromosomes always go their separate way. What effect does chromosome segregation have on genetics? We look once more to Adrian's flying hamsters for answers.
4. Application of Mendel's First Law
Hollywood Squares? No, it's Punnett Squares! Those wacky diagrams are a geneticist's best friend. See how they turn geneticists into soothsayers, predicting the genotypic and phenotypic future.
5. Mendel's Second Law: The Law of Independent Assortment
Understanding how Mendel's law of independent assortment describes inheritance of genes is as easy as flipping a coin. Grab a few coins, cue up the video and see how.
6. Mendel's Dihybrid Cross Example: Practice & Ratio
Oh no! Twice the genes and sixteen genotypes - a dihybrid cross seems overwhelming to understand. Never fear though, Punnett squares will save the day!
7. Exceptions to Simple Dominance: Codominance and Incomplete Dominance
Have you ever wondered what it means if someone is a universal donor or acceptor of blood? See how genetic interactions play a key role in this trait.
8. Exceptions to Independent Assortment: Sex-Linked and Sex-Limited Traits
More men are color blind compared women. But often, not every brother, cousin or uncle in a family tree is color blind. Why not? How can genetics explain this seemingly complex inheritance pattern?
9. Polygenic Traits: Definition & Examples
If variety is the spice of life, polygenic inheritance is one genetic mechanism giving us a continuous range of possibilities. In this lesson, learn how a polygenic trait, like height, can be controlled by multiple genes.
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