About This Chapter
Mineral, Rocks & Soil - Chapter Summary and Learning Objectives
Let instructors teaching this chapter's short video lessons show you how to identify the chemical composition, physical characteristics and life cycles of the material that makes up the ground beneath our feet. Explore topics like soil formation and rock type before examining mineral properties, such as luster, density and hardness. This chapter is designed to teach you:
- Environmental and social impacts of mineral consumption and extraction
- Physical and chemical properties of minerals
- Differences between silicate and non-silicate minerals
- Classification structures and life cycles of rocks
- Soil types and layers
- Techniques for preventing erosion
|What Are Minerals? - Types, Properties & Examples||Identifies criteria for classifying minerals, including chemical composition and crystalline structure, as well as their physical properties|
|Mineral Consumption: How Developed and Developing Nations Consume Minerals Differently||Explains the distribution of minerals across the Earth, as well as the ways in which a nation's wealth determines the type and amount of minerals consumed|
|Extraction and Processing of Minerals & the Environmental Impacts of Mineral Use||Discusses the byproducts of surface and subsurface mining techniques, such as open-pit and strip mining, longwall mining and solution mining|
|Optical Properties of Minerals: Luster, Light Transmission, Color & Streak||Describes mineral opacity, translucency and transparency, along with the significance of streak color and the types of lusters|
|Crystal Shape of Minerals: Forms and Types||Provides examples of euhedral crystal habits, such as octahedral and cubic, and non-geometrical habits, like prismatic and botryoidal|
|Mineral Strength: Tenacity, Hardness, Cleavage & Fracture||Explains the terms used to describe a mineral's toughness, resistance to scratching and tendency to break along a plane or form different shapes when fractured|
|Mineral Density & Specific Gravity: Definition and Properties||Uses mass and volume to solve equations for density and specific gravity, while also explaining the usefulness of these calculations in identifying minerals|
|Silicate Minerals: Chemical Classifications & Examples||Describes the chemical structure and composition of these minerals before providing examples of some of the most common types, such as feldspar, quartz and mica.|
|Non-Silicate Minerals: Chemical Classifications & Examples||Outlines the characteristics of carbonates, sulfates and halides.|
|Rocks and Minerals: Definitions and Differences||Explains the classification structures, chemical compositions and physical properties distinguishing minerals from rocks.|
|Rock Cycle: Igneous, Sedimentary, and Metamorphic rocks||Illustrates how igneous rocks formed from magma become compressed into sedimentary rocks and later into metamorphic rocks after being subjected to intense heat and pressure.|
|Types of Rocks: The Three Major Rock Groups||Describes the characteristics of igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic rock as well as detrital and chemical sedimentary rocks.|
|What is Soil? - Definition, Structure & Types||Defines soil composition and illustrates how the combination of its physical characteristics, including particle size, pH and permeability, determine soil type.|
|The Formation and Composition of Soil: Definition and Factors||Explains how factors like climate, time and topography affect the transformation of parent material, or humus, into horizons of differing compositions.|
|What is Soil Erosion? - Definition, Causes, Effects & Prevention||Describes the crop rotation, contour farming and terracing techniques used to mitigate the effects of erosion caused by agricultural and urban development.|
|Soil Conservation: Fighting Soil Erosion With Sustainable Soil Use||Outlines the benefits of preserving soil's pH and salinity as well as its living organisms.|
1. What Are Minerals? - Types, Properties & Examples
In this lesson, you will learn about minerals and their properties. You will also understand the importance and everyday use of different types of minerals found on Earth.
2. Mineral Consumption: How Developed and Developing Nations Consume Minerals Differently
In this lesson, you will learn about how minerals are used around the world. You will also gain an understanding of where minerals are found on earth and how developed and developing nations consume them differently.
3. Extraction and Processing of Minerals & the Environmental Impacts of Mineral Use
In this lesson, you will learn about the different methods used to extract minerals from the ground and gain an understanding about how different types of mining affect the environment.
4. Optical Properties of Minerals: Luster, Light Transmission, Color & Streak
Minerals are conveniently identified based on their physical properties. These properties include luster, ability to transmit light, color and streak. This lesson will describe each of these properties and examples of each.
5. Crystal Shape of Minerals: Forms and Types
Did you know that the term crystal can have different meanings in addition to something pretty to look at? A crystal can refer to a regular pattern of molecules within a mineral or the shapes at a macroscopic level. This is also known as the crystal habit.
6. Mineral Strength: Tenacity, Hardness, Cleavage & Fracture
What does it mean to say that one mineral is stronger than another? This lesson will explore different minerals to identify and describe mineral strength in terms of tenacity, hardness, cleavage and fracture.
7. Mineral Density & Specific Gravity: Definition and Properties
Mineral density and specific gravity are similar properties used by mineralologists to identify minerals. This lesson describes a common practice used to determine density and specific gravity.
8. Silicate Minerals: Chemical Classifications & Examples
Silicate minerals make up the bulk of the earth's crust. All silicates are made of the same building block, the silicon-oxygen tetrahedron. This lesson describes the major silicate minerals including feldspars and quartz.
9. Non-silicate Minerals: Chemical Classifications & Examples
While most minerals are silicates, many non-silicate minerals are found in the earth's crust and are important as well. This lesson will use examples and describe the three major groups of non-silicate minerals, including carbonates, halides and sulfates.
10. Rocks and Minerals: Definitions and Differences
Can you tell the difference between a rock and a mineral? What makes a mineral so much different from a rock? Explore these questions in depth, and learn how we classify rocks and minerals.
11. Rock Cycle: Igneous, Sedimentary, and Metamorphic Rocks
In this lesson, we will discuss the three main types of rocks and how they are formed. The lesson also gives an introduction into how matter locked in rocks can be cycled through the earth.
12. Types of Rocks: The Three Major Rock Groups
Did you know that lava is molten rock that reaches the earth's surface? Furthermore, did you know that rocks exist in three general forms: igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic? This lesson describes these rock types and examples of each.
13. The Formation and Composition of Soil: Definition and Factors
In this video lesson you will learn how soil is formed and what it is made of. You will also learn about how soil is classified and distributed in layers underground.
14. What is Soil? - Definition, Structure & Types
Soil is the material found on the surface of the earth that is composed of organic and inorganic material. Soil varies due to its structure and composition. Learn about the different types of soil and soil structures in this video lesson.
15. What is Soil Erosion? - Definition and Causes
With soil erosion, the top layer of soil is worn away due to factors such as water, wind and tillage of farmland. Learn about soil erosion and how natural elements and human activities break up and transport soil.
16. Soil Conservation: Fighting Soil Erosion With Sustainable Soil Use
In this lesson, you will learn about the causes of soil erosion and the impacts it has on plants and other resources. You will also learn about how erosion is prevented through land use and land monitoring.
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Other chapters within the AP Environmental Science: Exam Prep course
- Environmental Science Basics
- Time & Dating in Geology
- The Lithosphere
- Understanding Earthquakes
- The Atmosphere and the Environment
- Weather and Storms
- Water Balance
- Flowing Water
- Ground Water Systems
- Oceanic Systems & Characteristics
- Life Cycle of Glaciers
- Water Issues & Conservation
- Interaction Among Organisms in the Ecosystem
- Evolving Ecosystems
- Changing Ecosystems
- Population and the Environment
- Food and Agricultural Resources
- Forestry, Rangelands & Other Land Use
- Mining & Fishing
- Energy Concepts
- Renewable Energy Resources
- Nonrenewable Energy Sources
- Waste Management
- Effects of Humans on the Environment
- Sustaining the Environment
- Environmental Risk Analysis
- Global Environmental Economics
- Environmental Ethics & Politics
- AP Environmental Science Flashcards