About This Chapter
Minerals and Rocks - Chapter Summary and Learning Objectives
Do you know the difference between a mineral and rock? Is there even a difference between them, or are they the same thing? Is a diamond a mineral? If you have questions about minerals and rocks, this chapter will answer them. Take a look at the science behind the formation of rocks and minerals. Discover the different ways they can be identified. Compare the properties of minerals to the properties of rocks, and study the three types of rocks. You will also:
- Study the optical properties of minerals
- Discover how crystal shapes form
- Look at the various ways to measure mineral strength
- Compare mineral density and specific gravity
- Define silicate minerals
- Explore the rock cycle
|Optical Properties of Minerals: Luster, Light Transmission, Color & Streak||Examine the optical properties of minerals, including luster, ability to transmit light, color and streak.|
|Crystal Shape of Minerals: Forms and Types||Discover how crystal shapes form and how they are related to identification.|
|Mineral Strength: Tenacity, Hardness, Cleavage & Fracture||Explore the various ways to measure mineral strength, including tenacity, hardness, cleavage and fracture.|
|Mineral Density & Specific Gravity: Definition and Properties||Differentiate between mineral density and specific gravity, comparing these properties among different minerals and water.|
|Silicate Minerals: Chemical Classifications & Examples||Analyze the silicon-oxygen tetrahedron as the fundamental building block of silicates.|
|Non-silicate Minerals: Chemical Classifications & Examples||Identify the major non-silicate minerals, including carbonates, sulfates, and halides.|
|Rocks and Minerals: Definitions and Differences||Examine the difference between a rock and a mineral.|
|Rock Cycle: Igneous, Sedimentary, and Metamorphic rocks||Study the cycle matter can take through deposition, erosion, sedimentation and remelting.|
|Types of Rocks: The Three Major Rock Groups||Explore the three major families of rocks: igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic.|
1. Optical Properties of Minerals: Luster, Light Transmission, Color & Streak
Minerals are conveniently identified based on their physical properties. These properties include luster, ability to transmit light, color and streak. This lesson will describe each of these properties and examples of each.
2. Crystal Shape of Minerals: Forms and Types
Did you know that the term crystal can have different meanings in addition to something pretty to look at? A crystal can refer to a regular pattern of molecules within a mineral or the shapes at a macroscopic level. This is also known as the crystal habit.
3. Mineral Strength: Tenacity, Hardness, Cleavage & Fracture
What does it mean to say that one mineral is stronger than another? This lesson will explore different minerals to identify and describe mineral strength in terms of tenacity, hardness, cleavage and fracture.
4. Mineral Density & Specific Gravity: Definition and Properties
Mineral density and specific gravity are similar properties used by mineralologists to identify minerals. This lesson describes a common practice used to determine density and specific gravity.
5. Silicate Minerals: Chemical Classifications & Examples
Silicate minerals make up the bulk of the earth's crust. All silicates are made of the same building block, the silicon-oxygen tetrahedron. This lesson describes the major silicate minerals including feldspars and quartz.
6. Non-silicate Minerals: Chemical Classifications & Examples
While most minerals are silicates, many non-silicate minerals are found in the earth's crust and are important as well. This lesson will use examples and describe the three major groups of non-silicate minerals, including carbonates, halides and sulfates.
7. Rocks and Minerals: Definitions and Differences
Can you tell the difference between a rock and a mineral? What makes a mineral so much different from a rock? Explore these questions in depth, and learn how we classify rocks and minerals.
8. Rock Cycle: Igneous, Sedimentary, and Metamorphic Rocks
In this lesson, we will discuss the three main types of rocks and how they are formed. The lesson also gives an introduction into how matter locked in rocks can be cycled through the earth.
9. Types of Rocks: The Three Major Rock Groups
Did you know that lava is molten rock that reaches the earth's surface? Furthermore, did you know that rocks exist in three general forms: igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic? This lesson describes these rock types and examples of each.
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Other chapters within the Earth Science 101: Earth Science course
- Earth Science Basics
- Geologic Time
- Characteristics of Matter
- Earth's Spheres and Internal Structure
- Plate Tectonics
- Igneous Rocks
- Volcanic Landforms
- Weathering and Erosion
- Sedimentary Rocks: A Deeper Look
- Metamorphic Rocks: A Deeper Look
- Rock Deformation and Mountain Building
- Water Balance on Earth
- Running Water
- Ground Water
- Coastal Hazards
- Earth's Atmosphere
- Weather, Air Masses & Storms
- Earth History
- Energy Resources
- Studying for Earth Science 101