About This Chapter
Who's It For?
Anyone who needs help learning or mastering molecular biology basics will benefit from the lessons in this chapter. There is no faster or easier way to learn the basics of molecular biology. Among those who would benefit are:
- Students who have fallen behind in understanding the basics of molecular biology
- Students who struggle with learning disabilities or learning differences, including autism and ADHD
- Students who prefer multiple ways of learning biology (visual or auditory)
- Students who have missed class time and need to catch up
- Students who need an efficient way to learn about molecular biology basics
- Students who struggle to understand their teachers
- Students who attend schools without extra learning biology resources
How It Works:
- Study Efficiently:Skip what you know, review what you don't.
- Retain What You Learn:Engaging animations and real-life examples make topics easy to grasp.
- Be Ready on Test Day:Use the Molecular Biology Basics chapter exam to be prepared.
- Get Extra Support:Ask our subject-matter experts any biology question. They're here to help!
- Study With Flexibility:Watch videos on any web-ready device.
Why It Works:
- Study Efficiently: Skip what you know, review what you don't.
- Retain What You Learn: Engaging animations and real-life examples make topics easy to grasp.
- Be Ready on Test Day: Use the Molecular Biology Basics chapter exam to be prepared.
- Get Extra Support: Ask our subject-matter experts any biology question. They're here to help!
- Study With Flexibility: Watch videos on any web-ready device.
Students Will Review:
This chapter helps students review the concepts in a molecular biology basics unit of a standard Molecular Biology course. Topics covered include:
- The atom
- The electron shell
- Chemical bonds
- Properties of water
- Solutions, solutes and solvents
- Osmosis, diffusion and saturation
- Acids and bases
- The laws of thermodynamics
- Redox reactions
- Writing and balancing chemical reactions
- Weak acids, weak bases and buffers
1. The Atom
The physical basis that everything is composed of is called matter and the smallest unit of matter is called an atom. Learn about the atom, subatomic particles, the nucleus, elements, and the periodic table.
2. The Electron Shell
An electron shell is the space surrounding a nucleus where electrons are usually found. Learn more about the electron shell, energy levels, valence electrons, and noble gases.
3. Chemical Bonds I: Covalent
A covalent bond occurs when two atoms share electrons. Learn about chemical bonding, explore how covalent bonds are made, discover valence electrons, and review molecule structure.
4. Chemical Bonds II: Ionic
Ionic bonds are electrostatic interactions between two oppositely charged ions. Learn about chemical bonding and how ionic bonds form, discover the properties of electronegativity, and review examples of elements containing ionic bonds.
5. Chemical Bonds III: Polar Covalent
A polar covalent bond occurs when two atoms share electrons in an unequal manner. Learn about chemical bonding, how polar covalent bonds form, the difference between polar and nonpolar covalent bonds, and explore the effects of partial changes.
6. Chemical Bonds IV: Hydrogen
Hydrogen bonds are electrostatic interactions that occur when a hydrogen atom binds to an electronegative atom. Learn about chemical bonding, explore how hydrogen bonds form, discover the differences between intramolecular forces and intermolecular forces, then review an example of how these bonds are used.
7. Properties of Water
Hydrogen bonds make up a lot of the properties that make water able to be drunk and frozen as well as aid its elements. Learn more about the properties of water as well as its functions.
8. Solutions, Solutes, and Solvents
A chemical solution is made of a mixture of two or more substances, the solvent is the substance that does the dissolving and the solute is the substance being dissolved. Learn more about their functions and processes.
9. Osmosis, Diffusion and Saturation
Particles in a solution can move through different states of matter through the processes of osmosis and diffusion. Learn about the concepts of osmosis, diffusion, and saturation, and how they affect the solubility of particles and the movement of molecules.
10. Acids and Bases
Acids are substances that contribute molecules, while bases are substances that can accept them. Learn how to define acids and bases, explore the pH scale, and discover how to find pH values.
11. The Laws of Thermodynamics
The laws of thermodynamics deal with the relationship between heat and energy. Explore how the laws of thermodynamics function in everyday life, review the first and second laws, and learn about energy in a closed system.
12. Redox (Oxidation-Reduction) Reactions: Definitions and Examples
Redox reactions or oxidation-reduction reactions are chemical reactions that involve the transfer of electrons from one reactant to another. Learn about the process of oxidation-reduction reactions and find different examples of reactions between oxidizing and reducing agents.
13. Basic Properties of Chemical Reactions
Chemical reactions, when molecules interact to create new substances, can be written as equations. Learn more about the basic properties of chemical reactions and chemical equilibrium.
14. Weak Acids, Weak Bases, and Buffers
Hydrogen ions, given away by acids, can be strong or weak acids. Learn more about weak acids, weak bases, buffers, conjugate acid bases, and the roles of acidity constant and pKa.
15. L-DOPA: Benefits, Side Effects & Toxicity
This lesson goes over something known as L-DOPA. You'll first learn what it is, then when it's used (and what benefits it has), and some of its potential side effects.
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