About This Chapter
Molecular Structure & Chemical Bonds - Chapter Summary
Find out how much you know about molecular structure and chemical bonds while at home or anywhere you can access the Internet. Learn about valence electrons, the octet rule, the VSEPR theory and much more by watching the entertaining videos in this chapter. Additional topics covered in the lessons include orbital hybridization, Lewis structures of atoms and the valence bond theory. Finishing this chapter will enhance your ability to:
- Explain the basics of valence electrons and the energy levels of atoms of elements
- Differentiate between ionic and covalent chemical bonds
- Describe the octet rule and draw the Lewis diagram of an atom
- Define nonpolar and polar covalent bonds, and predict bond polarity
- Discuss VSEPR theory and predict the shape of a molecule
- Predict molecular shape using orbital hybridization and valence bond theory
- List types of hydrogen bonds and describe their formation
Watch the videos in this chapter in your sequence of choice. If you want to only watch certain portions of the lessons, use the clickable timeline below the videos to skip to key topics. Scroll below the videos to find full lesson transcripts that you can read online or print and add to your study materials. Take the quiz with each lesson and broader chapter exam to ensure you fully comprehend chemical bonds and the structure of molecules.
1. Valence Electrons and Energy Levels of Atoms of Elements
The periodic table contains a wealth of information. This lesson will explain how to use it to quickly determine the most useful information about the most important electrons. We will be focusing our discussion on valence electrons and energy levels.
2. Chemical Bonds: Ionic vs. Covalent
Atoms make up everything on Earth, and chemical bonds are what hold those atoms together. In this lesson, we'll discuss two very important types of chemical bonds: covalent and ionic.
3. The Octet Rule and Lewis Structures of Atoms
Learn the octet rule and how it applies to electron energy levels. Identify valence electrons and learn how to determine them by looking at the periodic table. Also, discover how they pertain to the octet rule. Learn how to draw the Lewis diagram of an atom, and understand how it provides clues to chemical bonding.
4. Covalent Bonds: Predicting Bond Polarity and Ionic Character
Learn about covalent bonds and their two types: nonpolar covalent bonds and polar covalent bonds. Discover how to predict the type of bond that will form based on the periodic table. Learn what ionic character means and how to determine it.
5. VSEPR Theory & Molecule Shapes
In this lesson, you'll learn about the VSEPR theory and how it can be used to explain molecule shapes. Then, learn how to predict the shape of a molecule by applying the VSEPR theory to the Lewis dot structure.
6. Using Orbital Hybridization and Valence Bond Theory to Predict Molecular Shape
You'll learn how to explain how shapes of molecules can be predicted using valence bond theory and hybridization. When finished, you'll understand the difference between sigma and pi bonds and how the VSEPR theory, along with the hybridization theory, helps predict the shape of a molecule.
7. Hydrogen Bonds: Definition, Types & Formation
Hydrogen bonds are electromagnetic attractions between the positive and negative poles of atoms. These bonds are weak and easily broken, but account for many of the important properties of things like water and DNA.
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