About This Chapter
Motivation in the Workplace - Chapter Summary and Learning Objectives
Motivation can be pretty hard to inspire in yourself, so how do you go about motivating others? This is an important issue for business managers to tackle. In these lessons, you'll learn about different motivational philosophies and how to implement them.
To begin with, you'll be given a definition of 'motivation' in a management context. You'll also be introduced to needs-based and behavior-based motivation, the two schools of thought on motivation theory. Additionally, you'll learn what the 'Pygmalion effect' is and how it's used to influence employee behavior.
Motivation theories by Herzberg, Vroom, Thorndike and Alderfer are also explored. Different theories covered in these lessons include the acquired needs, equity, goal-setting, reinforcement and expectancy theories. These management-centered lessons on motivation also include information on reward systems that reinforce positive employee behavior, both extrinsic and intrinsic reward systems. You'll also learn about job enrichment and job rotation, which are just two of the ways that managers can redesign jobs to encourage their employees.
Other motivation strategies that are discussed in these lessons include techniques through which managers can empower their employees to encourage good performance. Finally, you'll learn about job flexibility. Introducing flexibility can be a good way to motivate. Managers can accomplish this by allowing workers to take advantage of flextime, telecommuting, job sharing and a compressed workweek.
1. Motivation Theory: Needs-Based & Behavior-Based
There are two schools of thought used to explain employee motivation in the workplace. Needs-based theory states that employees have certain needs that must be met in order to be motivated to perform. Behavior-based theory believes motivating factors influence behavior towards work.
2. The Pygmalion Effect: Influencing Employee Behavior
Setting expectations for employee performance and behavior is one of the primary responsibilities of management. This lesson defines the Pygmalion Effect and describes how it is used to influence employee behavior.
3. Herzberg's Two-Factor Theory: Hygiene Factors & Motivation
This lesson describes Frederick Herzberg's two-factor theory, which is based on the idea of how hygiene factors and satisfiers or motivators are used to provide satisfaction to employees in work environments.
4. Alderfer's ERG Theory & Employee Motivation in the Workplace
Alderfer's ERG theory is a simplified version of Maslow's hierarchy of needs that suggests that all human needs can be accessed and satisfied simultaneously, rather than from the bottom up. Either way, as needs are satisfied, employees are motivated to strive to satisfy a new need.
5. Acquired Needs Theory: Need for Achievement, Power & Affiliation
Do you act out of a need for achievement, power or affiliation? This lesson describes the acquired needs theory and how one of the three types of needs affect us more than the others.
6. Equity Theory of Motivation: Reward & Effort
Have you ever noticed that some employees seem to work harder than others for the same reward? Why does that happen? This lesson explains how equity theory is used by managers to motivate employees by providing a high reward for equivalent efforts on part of the employee.
7. Vroom's Expectancy Theory of Employee Motivation
Finding the right equation for motivating employees can be challenging. This lesson explains how expectancy theory is used to motivate employees by increasing the motivation to act based on a set of specific criteria.
8. Thorndike's Reinforcement Theory: Using Consequences to Motivate Employees
In the workplace, there are levels of acceptable behavior. As a manager, it is important to use appropriate techniques that reinforce acceptable behavior and deter inappropriate behavior. This lesson describes how reinforcement theory is used to influence employee behavior through consequences.
9. Locke's Goal-Setting Theory: Using Goals to Advance Motivation
Locke's Goal-Setting Theory uses clear and challenging goals to advance employee motivation in the workplace. Goals that are well defined and challenging to attain are more likely to be met because they hold intrinsic and extrinsic value to the employee.
10. Reward Systems & Employee Behavior: Intrinsic & Extrinsic Rewards
Have you ever wondered why some employees are more motivated than others to work at a higher level of productivity? This lesson explains how managers use intrinsic and extrinsic rewards to reinforce positive employee behavior.
11. Types of Job Redesign: Job Enrichment, Enlargement & Rotation
Managers must be aware of ways to increase employee motivation. This lesson describes the various ways to redesign a job to encourage employees, including job enrichment, job enlargement and job rotation.
12. How to Empower Employees & Improve Employee Performance
Empowered employees have the potential to reach high levels of productivity because they feel in control of their jobs. This lesson will describe how a manager can empower an employee to motivate employee performance.
13. Job Flexibility in the Workplace
It's tough to find the right balance between work and life, but many employers are helping to make that task a little easier. Watch this lesson to learn about job flexibility in the workplace, including flextime, a compressed workweek, and telecommuting.
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Other chapters within the Business 101: Principles of Management course
- Management Basics
- Classical School of Management
- Behavioral School of Management Theory
- Contemporary and Future School of Management Theory
- Organizational Change
- Organizing in Business Management
- Work Teams
- Leading in Organizations
- Leadership Theory
- Communication in the Workplace
- Controlling in Organizations
- Human Resources
- Strategic Management and Managerial Decision Making
- Production and Quality Assurance
- International Management and Contemporary Issues
- Studying for Business 101