# Ch 23: MTEL Mathematics (Elementary): Principles of Probability

### About This Chapter

## MTEL Mathematics (Elementary): Principles of Probability - Chapter Summary

This in-depth exploration of the principles of probability is designed to address related exam topics on the MTEL Mathematics (Elementary) assessment. The test ensures you have the knowledge and skills needed to teach math to elementary students in Massachusetts. Get closer to your goal by reviewing lessons in this chapter that enable you to:

- Understand the elements, intersections and unions of mathematical sets
- Describe events as subsets of a sample space, and find the probability of independent and dependent events
- Calculate simple conditional probabilities, and explain the relationship between conditional probabilities and independence
- Apply conditional probability and independence to real-life situations, and find the expected values of games of chance
- Explain the addition and multiplication rules of probability, and define the fundamental counting principle
- Identify the formula for math combinations, and demonstrate how to calculate a permutation and the probability of permutations
- Share how to calculate the probability of simple, compound and complementary events

Take advantage of the conveniences this chapter offers as you study for your educator licensure exam. Watch short video lessons that average 10 minutes each from the comfort of your home or on the go via your mobile devices. Enjoy access to quality instructors through the lessons, and benefit from the ability to submit your lesson topic questions to our experts. Test your comprehension of each lesson by taking a self-assessment quiz, or get a broader review by taking the more comprehensive chapter exam.

### 1. Mathematical Sets: Elements, Intersections & Unions

Today we're going to explore mathematical sets, which are surprisingly simple! Sets are just collections of any objects or concepts, also known as elements, that can be related to each other through union or intersection.

### 2. Events as Subsets of a Sample Space: Definition & Example

Probability can get very confusing at times. You will find that some words, such as events and subsets, are often referring to the same concept depending on the experiment. Use this lesson to understand the concept of events as subsets.

### 3. Probability of Independent and Dependent Events

Sometimes probabilities need to be calculated when more than one event occurs. These types of compound events are called independent and dependent events. Through this lesson, we will look at some real-world examples of how to calculate these probabilities.

### 4. Probability of Independent Events: The 'At Least One' Rule

Occasionally when calculating independent events, it is only important that the event happens once. This is referred to as the 'At Least One' Rule. To calculate this type of problem, we will use the process of complementary events to find the probability of our event occurring at least once.

### 5. How to Calculate Simple Conditional Probabilities

Conditional probability, just like it sounds, is a probability that happens on the condition of a previous event occurring. To calculate conditional probabilities, we must first consider the effects of the previous event on the current event.

### 6. The Relationship Between Conditional Probabilities & Independence

Conditional and independent probabilities are a basic part of learning statistics. It's important that you can understand the similarities and differences between the two as discussed in this lesson.

### 7. Applying Conditional Probability & Independence to Real Life Situations

It can be really confusing learning how to apply conditional and independent probability to real-life situations. This lesson focuses on several examples and practice problems to help you learn how to find conditional probability.

### 8. The Addition Rule of Probability: Definition & Examples

In this lesson, you will learn the differences between mutually exclusive and non-mutually exclusive events and how to find the probabilities of each using the Addition Rule of Probability.

### 9. The Multiplication Rule of Probability: Definition & Examples

The Multiplication Rule of Probability is a concept you will use frequently when solving probability equations. In this lesson, learn the two different scenarios in which you will use the multiplication rule of probability.

### 10. Fundamental Counting Principle: Definition & Examples

In this lesson, you will learn about the fundamental counting principle, a method for determining how many ways choices can be made from groups. Several examples will be given.

### 11. Math Combinations: Formula and Example Problems

Combinations are an arrangement of objects where order does not matter. In this lesson, the coach of the Wildcats basketball team uses combinations to help his team prepare for the upcoming season.

### 12. How to Calculate a Permutation

A permutation is a method used to calculate the total outcomes of a situation where order is important. In this lesson, John will use permutations to help him organize the cards in his poker hand and order a pizza.

### 13. How to Calculate the Probability of Permutations

In this lesson, you will learn how to calculate the probability of a permutation by analyzing a real-world example in which the order of the events does matter. We'll also review what a factorial is. We will then go over some examples for practice.

### 14. Probability of Simple, Compound and Complementary Events

Simple, compound, and complementary events are different types of probabilities. Each of these probabilities are calculated in a slightly different fashion. In this lesson, we will look at some real world examples of these different forms of probability.

### 15. Dice: Finding Expected Values of Games of Chance

This lesson examines the various combinations and probabilities behind rolling dice. We will look at a game of dice and what to expect to win or lose in a game. In addition we will extend these concepts to playing with different sided dice.

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### Other Chapters

Other chapters within the MTEL Mathematics (Elementary) (53): Practice & Study Guide course

- MTEL Mathematics (Elementary): Number Sense
- MTEL Mathematics (Elementary): Mathematical Operations
- MTEL Mathematics (Elementary): Factoring & Divisibility
- MTEL Mathematics (Elementary): Real Numbers
- MTEL Mathematics (Elementary): Prime Factorization
- MTEL Mathematics (Elementary): Rational Numbers
- MTEL Mathematics (Elementary): Properties of Numbers
- MTEL Mathematics (Elementary): Roots
- MTEL Mathematics (Elementary): Exponents
- MTEL Mathematics (Elementary): Exponential Expressions & Scientific Notation
- MTEL Mathematics (Elementary): Absolute Value
- MTEL Mathematics (Elementary): Integers
- MTEL Mathematics (Elementary): Estimating & Rounding
- MTEL Mathematics (Elementary): Principles of Fractions
- MTEL Mathematics (Elementary): Operations with Fractions
- MTEL Mathematics (Elementary): Introduction to Decimals
- MTEL Mathematics (Elementary): Operations with Decimals
- MTEL Mathematics (Elementary): Percents
- MTEL Mathematics (Elementary): Descriptive Statistics
- MTEL Mathematics (Elementary): Summarizing Data
- MTEL Mathematics (Elementary): Principles of Sampling
- MTEL Mathematics (Elementary): Regression & Correlation
- MTEL Mathematics (Elementary): Properties of Functions
- MTEL Mathematics (Elementary): Understanding Algebraic Expressions
- MTEL Mathematics (Elementary): Solving Algebraic Equations
- MTEL Mathematics (Elementary): Properties of Linear Relations
- MTEL Mathematics (Elementary): Graphing Linear Equations
- MTEL Mathematics (Elementary): Properties of Ratios & Proportions
- MTEL Mathematics (Elementary): Properties of Polynomial Functions
- MTEL Mathematics (Elementary): Properties of Quadratic Functions
- MTEL Mathematics (Elementary): Properties of Rational Functions
- MTEL Mathematics (Elementary): Properties of Exponential Functions
- MTEL Mathematics (Elementary): Principles of Measurement
- MTEL Mathematics (Elementary): Principles of Geometry
- MTEL Mathematics (Elementary): Understanding Lines in Geometry
- MTEL Mathematics (Elementary): Principles of Geometric Figures
- MTEL Mathematics (Elementary): Properties of Triangles
- MTEL Mathematics (Elementary): Proof of Theorems
- MTEL Mathematics (Elementary): Quadrilaterals
- MTEL Mathematics (Elementary): Polygons
- MTEL Mathematics (Elementary): Circles & Circular Arcs
- MTEL Mathematics (Elementary): Principles of Geometric Solids
- MTEL Mathematics (Elementary): Parallel Lines & Symmetry
- MTEL Mathematics (Elementary): Transformations in Geometry
- MTEL Mathematics (Elementary): Understanding Coordinate Geometry
- MTEL Mathematics (Elementary School) Flashcards