# Ch 83: MTEL Middle School Math/Science: Characteristics of the Universe

### About This Chapter

## MTEL Middle School Math/Science: Characteristics of the Universe - Chapter Summary

The MTEL Mathematics/Science (Middle School) assessment can be challenging for individuals who haven't explored exam topics in months or years. To simplify your studying process, review the characteristics of the universe and ensure you're prepared for:

- Explaining how the earth and sun affect the phases of the moon
- Discussing how gravity, the moon and the sun influence tides
- Analyzing tidal friction and its effects on the earth and moon
- Exploring the cycle of seasons in astronomy
- Describing the geography of the four seasons
- Identifying the four important stages of evolution in the early universe
- Providing insight into the geologic time scale

Instructors in the lessons offer the definitions and explanations you need to competently answer questions related to the characteristics of the universe on the exam. Watch the lessons from the comfort of your home, or on the go using your smartphone or tablet.

### MTEL Middle School Math/Science: Characteristics of the Universe - Chapter Objectives

In Massachusetts, the MTEL Mathematics/Science (Middle School) assessment is used to help educators gain the licensure needed to teach these subjects in middle schools. The subject-matter test is computer based and consists of 100 multiple-choice questions and two open-response assignments. Topics in this chapter are found in the earth and space science subarea of the test, which constitutes about 8% of test and is found in the multiple-choice section.

Simplify your preparations for the exam by reviewing the lessons in their video or transcript formats. If you want to visit specific portions of the videos, use the timelines located below them to identify and skip to key topics. You can take self-assessment quizzes and a chapter exam to gauge how well you understand the materials. Using these resources, you can improve your chances of earning a passing score or 240 or more.

### 1. How Earth & the Sun Affect the Phases of the Moon

This lesson will describe how the moon, Earth, and sun combine to form the phases of the moon. We'll also discuss the important concept of synchronous rotation.

### 2. How Gravity, the Moon & the Sun Influence Tides

This lesson will define tides, the tidal force, neap tide, and spring tide. It will also talk about how the sun, moon, and Earth interact to produce tidal bulges.

### 3. Tidal Friction: Effects on Earth & the Moon

This lesson will go over the concept of tidal friction, why it occurs, and how all of that has affected Earth's spin and day length, as well as the moon's rotation and distance from Earth.

### 4. The Cycle of the Seasons in Astronomy

This lesson will explain to you why the Earth has different seasons, what the equinoxes and solstices are, their names, and if the distance the Earth is from the Sun influences the seasons.

### 5. Geography of the Four Seasons

This lesson will explain how the earth's axis and rotation affect seasons. In doing this, it will also highlight the concept of the summer and winter solstices, as well as how seasons vary around the globe.

### 6. The Evolution of the Early Universe

This lesson will describe four important stages of development in the early universe, the radiation era, recombination (decoupling) epoch, the dark age, and reionization era.

### 7. Geologic Time Scale: Major Eons, Eras, Periods and Epochs

The geologic time scale is an essential tool for understanding the history of Earth and the evolution of life. In this lesson, explore the principal eons, eras, periods, and epochs that help us track major events in geologic history.

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### Other Chapters

Other chapters within the MTEL Mathematics/Science (Middle School)(51): Practice & Study Guide course

- MTEL Middle School Math/Science: Number Structure
- MTEL Middle School Math/Science: Absolute Value
- MTEL Middle School Math/Science: Numerical & Algebraic Properties
- MTEL Middle School Math/Science: Properties of Equality & Inequality
- MTEL Middle School Math/Science: Mathematical Operations
- MTEL Middle School Math/Science: Introduction to Fractions
- MTEL Middle School Math/Science: Operations with Fractions
- MTEL Middle School Math/Science: Decimals & Decimal Operations
- MTEL Middle School Math/Science: Percents
- MTEL Middle School Math/Science: Ratios, Proportions & Rate of Change
- MTEL Middle School Math/Science: Estimation in Math
- MTEL Middle School Math/Science: Real Numbers
- MTEL Middle School Math/Science: Exponents
- MTEL Middle School Math/Science: Roots & Powers
- MTEL Middle School Math/Science: Algebra Basics
- MTEL Middle School Math/Science: Principles of Algebra
- MTEL Middle School Math/Science: Functions
- MTEL Middle School Math/Science: Linear Equations
- MTEL Middle School Math/Science: Polynomials
- MTEL Middle School Math/Science: Quadratic Equations
- MTEL Middle School Math/Science: Vectors in Linear Algebra
- MTEL Middle School Math/Science: Matrices in Linear Algebra
- MTEL Middle School Math/Science: Sequences & Series
- MTEL Middle School Math/Science: Measurement
- MTEL Middle School Math/Science: History of Geometry
- MTEL Middle School Math/Science: Geometric Properties & Theorems
- MTEL Middle School Math/Science: Principles of Geometry
- MTEL Middle School Math/Science: Algebraic Applications in Geometry
- MTEL Middle School Math/Science: Area, Perimeter & Volume
- MTEL Middle School Math/Science: Using Trigonometric Functions
- MTEL Middle School Math/Science: Trigonometric Graphs
- MTEL Middle School Math/Science: Solving Trigonometric Equations
- MTEL Middle School Math/Science: Trigonometric Identities
- MTEL Middle School Math/Science: Trigonometric Applications
- MTEL Middle School Math/Science: Types of Data
- MTEL Middle School Math/Science: Probability & Statistics
- MTEL Middle School Math/Science: Conditional & Independent Probability
- MTEL Middle School Math/Science: Probability & Statistics Calculations
- MTEL Middle School Math/Science: Basics of Logic
- MTEL Middle School Math/Science: Foundations of Science
- MTEL Middle School Math/Science: Scientific Research
- MTEL Middle School Math/Science: The Scientific Method
- MTEL Middle School Math/Science: Data Collection
- MTEL Middle School Math/Science: Analyzing Scientific Data
- MTEL Middle School Math/Science: Laboratory Procedures & Safety
- MTEL Middle School Math/Science: Experimental Chemistry
- MTEL Middle School Math/Science: Matter
- MTEL Middle School Math/Science: Inorganic Chemistry
- MTEL Middle School Math/Science: Measurement & Problem Solving
- MTEL Middle School Math/Science: Atomic Structure
- MTEL Middle School Math/Science: The Periodic Table
- MTEL Middle School Math/Science: Chemical Bonding
- MTEL Middle School Math/Science: Phase Changes for Liquids & Solids
- MTEL Middle School Math/Science: Solutions in Chemistry
- MTEL Middle School Math/Science: Stoichiometry & Chemical Equations
- MTEL Middle School Math/Science: Acids, Bases & Reactions
- MTEL Middle School Math/Science: Equilibrium
- MTEL Middle School Math/Science: Chemical Kinetics
- MTEL Middle School Math/Science: Thermodynamics in Chemistry
- MTEL Middle School Math/Science: Newton's First Law of Motion
- MTEL Middle School Math/Science: Newton's Second Law of Motion
- MTEL Middle School Math/Science: Newton's Third Law of Motion
- MTEL Middle School Math/Science: Force & Motion
- MTEL Middle School Math/Science: Wave Behavior
- MTEL Middle School Math/Science: Waves, Sound & Light
- MTEL Middle School Math/Science: Energy
- MTEL Middle School Math/Science: Electricity
- MTEL Middle School Math/Science: Magnetism & Electromagnetism
- MTEL Middle School Math/Science: Cells & Living Things
- MTEL Middle School Math/Science: Cell Division
- MTEL Middle School Math/Science: Genetics & Heredity
- MTEL Middle School Math/Science: DNA
- MTEL Middle School Math/Science: Genetic Mutations
- MTEL Middle School Math/Science: Origin & History of the Earth
- MTEL Middle School Math/Science: Ecosystems
- MTEL Middle School Math/Science: Evolving Ecosystems
- MTEL Middle School Math/Science: Rocks, Minerals & Soil
- MTEL Middle School Math/Science: Forces that Change the Earth's Surface
- MTEL Middle School Math/Science: Earth's Hydrosphere
- MTEL Middle School Math/Science: Structure of the Earth's Atmosphere
- MTEL Middle School Math/Science: Earth's Atmosphere, Weather & Climate
- MTEL Middle School Math/Science: Solar System
- MTEL Mathematics/Science (Middle School) Flashcards