About This Chapter
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- Have fallen behind in understanding joint anatomy, the structure and function of bones, or the types of tissue found in the muscular and skeletal systems
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- Verify you're ready by completing the muscle and skeletal systems chapter exam.
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Students will review:
In this chapter, you'll learn the answer to questions including:
- What are the major functions of skeletal muscles?
- What are the types of muscle tissue?
- How are skeletal muscles organized?
- What is a neuromuscular junction?
- What is the structure and function of joints?
- How do joints move?
- What are the bones of the leg and foot?
- What are the major bones of the skull?
- What does cartilage do?
- How can bones function as connective tissue?
- How do bones grow?
- What is the structure of bones?
1. Major Skeletal Muscle Functions
Skeletal muscles serve many different purposes in the body. Learn about some of their major functions, including how skeletal muscles are related to posture, digestion, body temperature regulation, and homeostasis.
2. Types of Muscle Tissue: Skeletal, Cardiac & Smooth
The three different types of muscle tissue are skeletal, cardiac, and smooth, and they differ in structure and functions. Explore these types of tissue, and learn about muscle histology, muscular contraction, and regulation of contraction.
3. Skeletal Muscle Organization: Connective Tissue and Layers
Skeletal muscle contains bundles of muscle fibers packed between layers of connective tissue called perimysium. Explore the role connective tissue plays in skeletal muscle organization and in fascicle, muscle fiber, and myofibril arrangement.
4. The Neuromuscular Junction: Function, Structure & Physiology
The neuromuscular junction causes muscles to contract, an ability vital for muscle movement. Learn about the neuromuscular junction, and explore its function, structure, and physiology. Understand synaptic transmission, anatomy and physiology of a synapse, and neuromuscular disease.
5. The Skeletal System: Function and Terms
The human skeletal system is comprised of the axial skeleton (the central parts of the skeleton, including the skull, vertebral column and rib cage) and appendicular skeleton (the peripheral parts of the skeletal system, including all of the bones in the arms, legs and the pelvic and pectoral girdles). Discover the parts of a long bone (diaphysis, epiphysis, and metaphysis), and the functions of osteoblasts and osteoclasts in bone formation.
6. Joints: Structure and Functions
Joints are locations throughout the human skeletal system where two or more bones come together to allow for movement and support of the body. Learn about the structure of joints, the function of joint capsules, synovial membrane, bursa, meniscus, and the importance of synovial fluid in reducing friction between bones.
7. Types of Joint Movement & Tissue Structure and Function
The joints in the body are categorized depending on the movement they make. Learn about the different types of joints and their movements and how tissue structure affects the function of the joints.
8. Bones of the Leg and Foot: Names, Anatomy & Functions
The structure of the leg allows for the strength and form needed to kick a field goal. Explore the names, anatomy, and functions of the bones in the leg and foot, including the femur, tibia, patella, fibula, tarsals, and metatarsals.
9. Bones of the Pelvis: Definition and Function
The pelvis protects the bladder, provides structure for the hips, and connects the legs to the spine. Explore the functions and components of the bones in the pelvis, including the ilium, ischium, pubis, sacrum, pelvic cavity, and acetabulum.
10. Bones of the Vertebral Column and Ribs: Definition and Function
The ribcage, supported by the spine, protects vital organs like the lungs and heart from damage. Explore the functions of the bones of the vertical column and ribcage, including the vertebrae, sternum, costal cartilages, and ribs.
11. Bones of the Shoulder: Anatomy and Functions
The shoulder contains many components, and damage to any one of them can injure the entire shoulder. Explore the anatomy and functions of the bones in the shoulder, including the humerus, glenoid cavity, scapula, clavicle, and acromion.
12. Bones of the Arm and Hand: Anatomy and Functions
Humans have a complex anatomical system of bones in the hands and arms that allow us to grasp and move items. Discover the functions of: the phalanges (finger and toe bones), metacarpals (between fingers and carpals), carpals (wrists), radius (forearm), ulna (parallel to the radius), and humerus (connects shoulder and forearm).
13. Major Bones of the Skull: Names and Location
The human skull is not one single bone, but six bones fused together: four unpaired and two paired. Learn the names and locations of the six major bones in the skull: the sphenoid, ethmoid, frontal, occipital, temporal, and parietal bones.
14. Bones of the Face: Names, Function & Location
The human body contains eight facial bones which are necessary to protect the brain, sense organs (sight, smell, & taste), and act as the base for soft tissue formation. Learn about the bones of the face (lacrimal, nasal, vomer, zygomatic, maxilla, mandible, palatine, & inferior nasal conchae), the function and location of each bone, and which facial bones are paired.
15. What is Cartilage? - Definition, Types & Function
Cartilage is a kind of connective tissue within the body that has different properties than bone and muscle. Learn about the cells that make up cartilage, the different types of cartilage, and their function within different parts of the body.
16. Bone Tissue: Functions and Types
The bones are considered connective tissues since these act as connections and supports for the entire human body. Learn about the histology of bones, the different cells that make up the bone structure, and their specific functions.
17. Anatomy of a Bone: Parts, Marrow & Types
Bones are comprised of cortical bone or cancellous bone and classified by shape. All bones contain bone marrow where red blood cells or adipose cells are formed. Learn about the anatomy of a bone, different bone shapes, types of bone tissue and bone tissue layers, bone marrow, and bone markings.
18. Bone Growth & Development Factors: Endochondral Ossification
Bone formation in the human body begins during fetal development. After birth, endochondral ossification performs a major role in bone elongation, which is accomplished through the epiphyseal plate. Learn about bone growth, development factors, bone growth after birth, the process of bone formation (intramembranous ossification and endochondral ossification), and how ossification works in the development of bones.
19. Compact Bone: Definition, Structure & Function
In this lesson, you will learn what makes up compact bone. You'll also specifically explore the structure and location of compact bone, the densest of the two bone types.
20. Clonus: Definition, Causes & Treatment
Clonus is a condition that results in involuntary muscle spasms, most often affecting muscles at the end of the limbs. It may be a condition in and of itself or a symptom of something else.
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