About This Chapter
Muscle and Skeletal Systems - Chapter Summary
This chapter is tasked with educating you about the body's major skeletal muscle functions, as well as helping you define muscle and skeletal system terms. You will also come across video lessons that cover the following concepts:
- Bones of the leg and foot, pelvis, arm and hand, vertebral column, ribs, shoulder and head
- Smooth, skeletal and cardiac muscle tissue
- Neuromuscular junction
- Calcium-protein matrix
- Connective tissue and layers
- Types of joint movement
We help educate you through video lessons that are easy to understand and short. These video lessons are bundled with supplementary quizzes that were created to give you immediate feedback for revealing your weaknesses and strengths. Your results also give insight regarding your preparedness to answer questions on the MCAT's biological sciences section.
Muscle and Skeletal Systems Objectives
As stated by the MCAT muscle and skeletal systems objectives, you will need to know the following concepts:
- Ligaments, tendons and cartilage
- Nervous control of the muscle system
- Skeletal structure
- Muscle support and mobility
- Bone growth
Along with sitting for an optional trial section and the biological sciences section, the MCAT also consists of verbal reasoning and physical sciences sections. You must answer the 52 questions on the biological sciences section before the 70-minute time limit expires. These are separated into 13 individual questions and seven question sets based on reading passages. You need to answer four to seven questions per reading passage.
1. Major Skeletal Muscle Functions
Did you know that skeletal muscle does more than just move our body parts? This lesson describes how skeletal muscles are used for movement, posture, swallowing, defecation, urination and homeostasis.
2. Types of Muscle Tissue: Skeletal, Cardiac & Smooth
Have you ever wondered why muscle has different names such as striated, smooth, voluntary, or involuntary? This lesson describes the different types of muscle tissue based on their histology, mechanism of contraction, and regulation.
3. Skeletal Muscle Organization: Connective Tissue and Layers
Did you know that skeletal muscles are organized into tightly packed groups? This lesson identifies the connective tissue layers that organize skeletal muscle into fascicles, muscle fibers and myofibrils. Additionally, the microscopic structure of the sarcomere is described.
4. The Neuromuscular Junction: Function, Structure & Physiology
A neuromuscular junction is a synapse between a motor neuron and skeletal muscle. This lesson describes the events of synaptic transmission leading to contraction of skeletal muscle. Myasthenia gravis is described as a neuromuscular disease.
5. The Skeletal System: Function and Terms
You'll learn about the two major divisions of our skeleton, the axial and appendicular skeleton, in this video lesson. In addition, you will find out how bone is formed, thanks to tiny little cells called osteoblasts and osteoclasts, and what the major parts of a long bone are.
6. Joints: Structure and Functions
Find out what part of your body is affected when you tear your meniscus, how synovial fluid is made, what the synovial membrane helps to comprise, what a joint is, and why a joint capsule is important.
7. Types of Joint Movement & Tissue Structure and Function
Find out how your joints are categorized. You'll learn about the synovial, cartilaginous, and fibrous joints as well as diarthrosis, synarthrosis, and amphiarthrosis.
8. Bones of the Leg and Foot: Names, Anatomy & Functions
Find out about the major bones which help you walk. We'll go over the femur, patella, fibula, tibia, tarsals, metatarsals, and something called the trochanter.
9. Bones of the Pelvis: Definition and Function
In this lesson, you will learn about your hips and the important structures involved in their formation. The ilium, ischium, pubis, acetabulum, pelvic cavity, and sacrum will all be covered.
10. Bones of the Vertebral Column and Ribs: Definition and Function
Learn about the importance of your ribs, vertebrae, and sternum. If it wasn't for them, you wouldn't be alive. You'll also find out what strange sounding words like manubrium and xyphoid mean.
11. Bones of the Shoulder: Anatomy and Functions
Did you know that your shoulder joint is made up of many different parts? In this lesson, you'll learn about the clavicle, scapula, glenoid cavity, and acromion, as well as some of their more common names.
12. Bones of the Arm and Hand: Anatomy and Functions
The humerus isn't all that funny; it plays an important role in your body. Likewise, the radius, ulna, carpals, metacarpals and phalanges are all important components of your arm, wrist and fingers.
13. Major Bones of the Skull: Names and Location
Your eyeballs, ear and brain all depend on skull bones to give them a place to live. These bones include the frontal, parietal, occipital, temporal, sphenoid and ethmoid bone. Review these bones and their purposes in this lesson.
14. Bones of the Face: Names, Function & Location
In this lesson, learn which bones help you cry, breathe, eat and see as we review the maxilla, mandible, zygomatic, lacrimal, nasal, vomer and palatine bones of the face. Then, learn which bones are paired.
15. What is Cartilage? - Definition, Types & Function
Cartilage is a strong, flexible type of connective tissue found within a body. Learn more about its structure and function, as well as the different types of cartilage connective tissue we have in our bodies.
16. Bone Tissue: Functions and Types
In this lesson, we will explore bone as a connective tissue. We will discuss the anatomy of bone, as well as the cell types which make up bone, including how bone is formed and broken down.
17. Anatomy of a Bone: Parts, Marrow & Types
In this lesson, you'll learn how to classify bones by their shape. Additionally, you'll discover the structural makeup of bone and the different bone markings.
18. Bone Growth & Development Factors: Endochondral Ossification
In this lesson, you will learn about the two ways we form bones: intramembranous ossification and endochondral ossification. You'll also discover how our bones grow after we're born.
Earning College Credit
Did you know… We have over 200 college courses that prepare you to earn credit by exam that is accepted by over 1,500 colleges and universities. You can test out of the first two years of college and save thousands off your degree. Anyone can earn credit-by-exam regardless of age or education level.
To learn more, visit our Earning Credit Page
Transferring credit to the school of your choice
Not sure what college you want to attend yet? Study.com has thousands of articles about every imaginable degree, area of study and career path that can help you find the school that's right for you.
Other chapters within the MCAT Test: Practice and Study Guide course
- Introduction to Organic Chemistry
- Enzymes and Metabolism
- The Transcription and Translation Process
- The Molecular & Chromosomal Basis of Inheritance
- Genetic Variation, Control & Reproduction
- Developmental Mechanisms
- Mendelian Concepts
- Genetic Variability & Mutation
- Analytic Methods in Genetics
- Evolution & Natural Selection
- Development of Vertebrates
- Thermochemistry & Thermodynamics
- Glycolysis, Gluconeogenesis & Metabolic Regulation
- Kinetics and Equilibrium
- Cell Structure, Functions & Processes
- Virus Structure & Life Cycle
- Prokaryotic Cells
- Cell Biology & Cell Cycle
- Nerve, Muscle & Specialized Cell Types
- Endocrine System: Hormones & Mechanisms of Hormone Action
- Nervous System: Structure, Function & Sensory Reception
- Circulatory System Overview
- Lymphatic System
- Immune System: Innate and Adaptive Systems
- Digestive System Functions & Organs
- Urinary Systems & Structures
- Respiratory System
- Skin System
- Human Reproductive Systems
- Reproductive Sequence
- Translational Motion
- Force, Motion & Gravitation
- Equilibrium and Momentum
- Work and Energy
- Principles of Fluids
- Gas Laws
- Electrostatics & Magnetism
- Electronic Circuit Elements
- Light & Geometrical Optics
- Atomic Structure and Components
- Atomic Nucleus
- Electronic Structure
- Trends of the Periodic Table
- Stoichiometric Calculations
- Acids and Bases Overview
- Solution Chemistry
- Molecular Bonding
- Phase Equilibria
- Basic Molecular Biology Laboratory Techniques
- Sensory Processes & Theories
- Human Senses
- Human Attention & Cognition
- States of Human Consciousness
- Characterizing Language Development
- Genetics, Evolution & Environmental Influences on Behavior
- Prenatal Development & Birth
- Principles of Motor Development, Learning & Control
- Development in the Adolescence Years
- Personality Components & Assessment
- Psychological Health & Disorders
- Motivation Types and Sources
- Attitude Types and Theories
- Types of Social Groups & Organizations
- Theories of Deviance & Social Control
- Learning and Conditioning
- Understanding the Self
- Prejudice & Discrimination
- Social Behavior
- Social Structure
- Families, Religions & Schools as Social Institutions
- Political & Economic Systems
- Health and Medicine
- Culture, Socialization & Social Interaction
- Population and Migration
- Sex and Gender Roles
- Social Status
- Principles & Procedures in Scientific Research
- Scientific Basics & Theories
- Scientific Experiments & Data Analysis
- MCAT Test Flashcards