About This Chapter
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Anyone who needs help learning or mastering human anatomy and physiology material will benefit from taking this course. There is no faster or easier way to learn human anatomy and physiology. Among those who would benefit are:
- Students who have fallen behind in understanding muscular contraction or the muscular system
- Students who struggle with learning disabilities or learning differences, including autism and ADHD
- Students who prefer multiple ways of learning science (visual or auditory)
- Students who have missed class time and need to catch up
- Students who need an efficient way to learn about the muscular system
- Students who struggle to understand their teachers
- Students who attend schools without extra science learning resources
How it works:
- Find videos in our course that cover what you need to learn or review.
- Press play and watch the video lesson.
- Refer to the video transcripts to reinforce your learning.
- Test your understanding of each lesson with short quizzes.
- Verify you're ready by completing the Muscular System chapter exam.
Why it works:
- Study Efficiently: Skip what you know, review what you don't.
- Retain What You Learn: Engaging animations and real-life examples make topics easy to grasp.
- Be Ready on Test Day: Use the Muscular System chapter exam to be prepared.
- Get Extra Support: Ask our subject-matter experts any muscular system question. They're here to help!
- Study With Flexibility: Watch videos on any web-ready device.
Students will review:
In this chapter, you'll learn the answer to questions including:
- How do the different types of muscle tissue compare?
- What are the major functions of skeletal muscle?
- How is skeletal muscle organized into layers?
- How is the sarcomere involved in muscular contraction?
- How do myosin and actin enable muscular contraction?
- How do calcium and regulatory proteins enable muscular contraction?
- What are the functions and structures of the neuromuscular junction?
- How does the arrangement of filaments in a sarcomere affect the strength of a muscular contraction?
- How do muscle twitches generate muscle tension?
- How do motor units develop muscle tension?
- What is the difference between isotonic and isometric contraction?
- How does muscle utilize ATP?
- What are the different types of skeletal muscle fiber?
1. Types of Muscle Tissue: Skeletal, Cardiac & Smooth
Have you ever wondered why muscle has different names such as striated, smooth, voluntary, or involuntary? This lesson describes the different types of muscle tissue based on their histology, mechanism of contraction, and regulation.
2. Major Skeletal Muscle Functions
Did you know that skeletal muscle does more than just move our body parts? This lesson describes how skeletal muscles are used for movement, posture, swallowing, defecation, urination and homeostasis.
3. Skeletal Muscle Organization: Connective Tissue and Layers
Did you know that skeletal muscles are organized into tightly packed groups? This lesson identifies the connective tissue layers that organize skeletal muscle into fascicles, muscle fibers and myofibrils. Additionally, the microscopic structure of the sarcomere is described.
4. The Sarcomere and Sliding Filaments in Muscular Contraction: Definition and Structures
Did you know that a sarcomere is the fundamental functional unit of striated muscle? This lesson describes the thick and thin filaments of a sarcomere and how they interact with each other to cause sarcomere shortening and muscular contraction.
5. Muscular Contraction: Cross-Bridge Formation
Did you know that muscles contract as a result of cross-bridge formation between actin and myosin? This lesson describes the stages of cross-bridge cycling and how this results in sarcomere shortening and muscular contraction.
6. Excitation-Contraction Coupling & Muscular Contraction Regulation
Did you know that calcium couples neural stimulation with contraction of skeletal muscle? This lesson describes the role of calcium, troponin, tropomyosin, and ATP in the regulation of muscular contraction. Rigor mortis is explained to help you understand the regulation of contraction as well.
7. The Neuromuscular Junction: Function, Structure & Physiology
A neuromuscular junction is a synapse between a motor neuron and skeletal muscle. This lesson describes the events of synaptic transmission leading to contraction of skeletal muscle. Myasthenia gravis is described as a neuromuscular disease.
8. Length-Tension Relationship in Skeletal Muscle
All skeletal muscles have a resting length. When our muscles are stretched to the ideal length, it can maximize muscular contraction. This lesson explains the length-tension relationship in skeletal muscle and explores how the arrangement of myofilaments in a sarcomere can impact tension and contraction.
9. Muscle Twitch, Wave Summation & Muscle Tension
Did you know that posture results from rapid stimulation of skeletal muscles? This lesson describes the nature of a muscle twitch and explains how individual contractions are added together resulting in tetanus and good posture.
10. How Motor Unit Summation Develops Muscle Tension
Did you know that skeletal muscles are composed of motor units? This lesson describes the nature of a motor unit and how motor unit recruitment regulates whole muscle contraction. Additionally, this lesson describes the effect of strength conditioning on muscle.
11. Isometric and Isotonic Contraction: Definition and Examples
Did you know that muscles can contract and not move your limbs? This lesson describes the nature of both isometric and isotonic skeletal muscle contraction. Examples are utilized to help you understand how this works.
12. Muscle Metabolism: Synthesis of ATP
Did you know our muscles use billions of molecules every second to contract? This lesson describes the different metabolic processes by which ATP is generated by the muscle cell. Examples are utilized to define glycolysis, the citric acid cycle and oxidative phosphorylation.
13. Skeletal Muscle Fibers: Types and Functions
Did you know most human muscles contain a mixture of fast, slow and intermediate fibers? This lesson describes the structure and function of the three muscle fiber types found in humans.
14. Major Muscle Groups of the Human Body
This lesson introduces the major skeletal muscle groups of the human body. It includes illustrations, examples, and descriptions for each major group. A brief quiz and summation of key points are also included.
15. The 4 Abdominal Quadrants: Regions & Organs
This lesson provides an overview on the four major abdominal quadrants. It introduces individual quadrants, names the organs contained within each, and describes organ function. A review and brief quiz are also included.
16. The Six Types of Synovial Joints: Examples & Definition
In this lesson, you'll explore the six types of synovial joints and learn how to connect the different bodily movements to joint type. To aid in your understanding of the material, illustrations, examples, and a brief quiz will be included.
17. Fibromyalgia: Symptoms & Treatment
Fibromyalgia is a condition that causes muscle pain, fatigue, and painful spots on the body, and is difficult to diagnose. Read this lesson to learn more about what causes fibromyalgia, the full range of symptoms, and possible treatment options.
18. Abdominopelvic Cavity: Bony Landmarks, Organs & Regions
In this lesson, we'll explore the abdominopelvic cavity. We'll learn what it is, where it is, and what it houses. Also, we'll learn about the location of the nine regions that make up the abdominopelvic cavity and the organs within each one.
19. Protuberant Abdomen: Causes & Overview
A protuberant abdomen is the medical term for when the abdomen, or midsection, sticks out farther than usual. There are a number of conditions that may cause this, and we'll discuss some of them in this lesson.
20. The 9 Regions of the Abdomen
Did you know that your abdomen has nine regions? Yes, nine! In this lesson you will discover the location of these nine regions and which organs are associated with each region.
21. ATP: Definition & Molecules
ATP is the molecule that fuels life. It is where our cells get the energy needed to perform their tasks. This lesson will define ATP, explain its structure, and briefly outline how it works.
22. Adduction: Definition, Example & Exercises
The human body can move in many different ways and directions. You will learn about one of the terms we use to describe the movements of the human body in this lesson: adduction.
23. Atrophy: Definition, Types & Symptoms
Atrophy is the wasting away or reduction in size of some part of the body. This condition reduces function of the area. Complete this lesson to learn about the different types of atrophy, their corresponding symptoms, and treatment options.
24. Biceps Brachii: Origin, Insertion & Function
Did you know that the muscles in your upper arms not only bend your elbow, but also move your shoulder? In this lesson, you will learn about one of the major muscles of your arm, the biceps brachii.
25. Electromyography: Definition & Use
Electromyography is a medical procedure that analyzes how the muscles receive information from the nerves. It can be used to gain information about healthy or damaged muscles. This lesson will describe the procedure and why it's used.
26. Eversion of Foot: Definition & Movement
Have you ever seen a little kid walk on the inside of his feet and wonder if that's normal? In this lesson you will learn about this type of movement called eversion of the foot.
27. Flexion: Definition & Exercises
In this lesson, you'll find out the meaning and exercises behind flexion. You'll also have the chance to learn about different joint movements and muscles of the body. When you are through, test your new-found knowledge with a quiz!
28. What is a Muscle Strain? - Definition, Causes, Symptoms & Treatment
There's often a lot of confusion about the difference between a muscle strain and a sprain. This lesson will explain the differences between the two and outline the causes, symptoms, and treatment options available for muscle strains.
29. What Is Contracture? - Definition, Symptoms & Treatment
Contracture is the shortening or stiffening of muscles, skin, or connective tissues that results in decreased movement and range of motion. Read this lesson to learn what causes it, the symptoms, and how it's treated.
30. What is Fitness? - Definition, Components, Types & Examples
Fitness is far more than simply exercising on a consistent basis. Fitness has a variety of components and there are many ways it can be measured. With a solid understanding of this topic, individuals can address those aspects of their life that directly impact fitness.
31. What Is Hypertrophy? - Definition, Causes, Symptoms & Treatment
Hypertrophy is one of the ways cells grow to adapt to changes in their environment, and it can be both a good and a bad thing. In this lesson, learn about the types of hypertrophy, their causes, signs, symptoms, and treatments.
32. What Is Myalgia? - Definition, Symptoms & Treatment
In this lesson, you're going to learn about a health condition called myalgia. We will examine a few of its many causes and the types of symptoms a person with myalgia might exhibit, as well as the various treatment options available.
33. What is Pronation? - Definition, Causes & Treatment
If you walk or run or stand, you need to read more about pronation! What is it? What causes it? What are the long-term effects if it goes untreated? What are the treatment options? Read below to make sure you aren't unknowingly stressing out your feet!
34. What Is Range of Motion (ROM)? - Definition, Types, Testing & Exercises
Range of motion is a measurement of movement around a joint. Learn how it is affected and how it is tested, and start incorporating exercises to improve your own range of motion!
35. Adenosine Diphosphate: Definition & Function
Adenosine diphosphate isn't the star of the cell when it comes to energy, but it is certainly important! Read on to learn how adenosine diphosphate helps our cells have energy to do everything they need to do.
36. How Muscle Levers Affect Muscle Efficiency
Muscular contraction creates force to move the weight of our body and body parts. This lesson describes the three lever systems utilized by our body to create movement. The efficiency of each lever type in terms of strength, speed and distance are identified along with examples.
37. How Muscular Contraction Causes Articulation: Definition & Types
Skeletal muscle contraction causes all types of movement. Movement at our joints is referred to as articulation. All articulation is described in reference to the anatomical position, and most articulations are identified in opposite pairs. This lesson identifies and describes the major articulations of the human body.
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Other chapters within the Human Anatomy & Physiology: Help and Review course
- Inorganic Chemistry in Anatomy and Physiology: Help and Review
- Organic Molecules in Anatomy and Physiology: Help and Review
- Biochemistry in Anatomy and Physiology: Help and Review
- Basic Anatomy and Cell Biology: Help and Review
- Respiratory System: Help and Review
- Cardiovascular System: Help and Review
- Blood Vessels: Help and Review
- Digestive System: Help and Review
- Urinary System: Help and Review
- Endocrine System: Help and Review
- The Brain: Help and Review
- The Nervous System at the Cellular Level: Help and Review
- The Five Senses: Help and Review
- Gross Anatomy of Muscular System: Help and Review
- Connective Tissue: Help and Review
- Skeletal System: Help and Review
- Anatomy and Physiology of Male and Female Reproductive Systems: Help and Review
- Early Development to Childbirth: Help and Review
- Overview of Nerves & Senses