About This Chapter
Muscular System - Chapter Summary and Learning Objectives
The muscles in your body help you to move. Small movements, like lifting a finger, to large movements, like dancing, would not be possible if your muscles aren't functioning properly. In these lessons, you'll get to discover the different ways the muscular system works. Learn about various muscles in the body and the way each muscle helps move certain parts of your body, such as your arms or legs. Some of the things you will learn in these lessons include:
- Types of muscle tissue
- How to identify layers of muscle
- The role of filaments in muscle contractions
- How calcium and protein help muscle movement
- The definition of muscle twitch
- The metabolism of muscle
|Types of Muscle Tissue: Skeletal, Cardiac & Smooth||Explore the differences and similarities in the different types of muscle tissue.|
|Major Skeletal Muscle Functions||Study the different functions of the major skeletal muscles.|
|Skeletal Muscle Organization: Connective Tissue and Layers||Take a look at the different layers within skeletal muscle.|
|The Sarcomere and Sliding Filaments in Muscular Contraction: Definition and Structures||Examine the sarcomere and sliding filaments.|
|Muscular Contraction: Cross-Bridge Formation||Discover the role of myosin and actin in cross-bridge formation.|
|Excitation-Contraction Coupling & Muscular Contraction Regulation||Analyze the role of calcium and protein in contraction regulation.|
|The Neuromuscular Junction: Function, Structure & Physiology||Learn about the neuromuscular junction.|
|Length-Tension Relationships in Skeletal Muscle||Explore how filaments are arranged and how it affects the strength of muscle contractions.|
|Muscle Twitch, Wave Summation & Muscle Tension||Discover muscle twitch and how it can lead to muscle tension.|
|How Motor Unit Summation Develops Muscle Tension||Study motor units and their relationship to muscle tension.|
|Isometric and Isotonic Contraction: Definition and Examples||Examine isometric and isotonic contractions.|
|Muscle Metabolism: Processes to Generate ATP||Analyze the process of ATP generation.|
|Skeletal Muscle Fibers: Types and Functions||Learn more about the types and functions of skeletal muscle fibers.|
1. Types of Muscle Tissue: Skeletal, Cardiac & Smooth
Have you ever wondered why muscle has different names such as striated, smooth, voluntary, or involuntary? This lesson describes the different types of muscle tissue based on their histology, mechanism of contraction, and regulation.
2. Major Skeletal Muscle Functions
Did you know that skeletal muscle does more than just move our body parts? This lesson describes how skeletal muscles are used for movement, posture, swallowing, defecation, urination and homeostasis.
3. Skeletal Muscle Organization: Connective Tissue and Layers
Did you know that skeletal muscles are organized into tightly packed groups? This lesson identifies the connective tissue layers that organize skeletal muscle into fascicles, muscle fibers and myofibrils. Additionally, the microscopic structure of the sarcomere is described.
4. The Sarcomere and Sliding Filaments in Muscular Contraction: Definition and Structures
Did you know that a sarcomere is the fundamental functional unit of striated muscle? This lesson describes the thick and thin filaments of a sarcomere and how they interact with each other to cause sarcomere shortening and muscular contraction.
5. Muscular Contraction: Cross-Bridge Formation
Did you know that muscles contract as a result of cross-bridge formation between actin and myosin? This lesson describes the stages of cross-bridge cycling and how this results in sarcomere shortening and muscular contraction.
6. Excitation-Contraction Coupling & Muscular Contraction Regulation
Did you know that calcium couples neural stimulation with contraction of skeletal muscle? This lesson describes the role of calcium, troponin, tropomyosin, and ATP in the regulation of muscular contraction. Rigor mortis is explained to help you understand the regulation of contraction as well.
7. The Neuromuscular Junction: Function, Structure & Physiology
A neuromuscular junction is a synapse between a motor neuron and skeletal muscle. This lesson describes the events of synaptic transmission leading to contraction of skeletal muscle. Myasthenia gravis is described as a neuromuscular disease.
8. Length-Tension Relationship in Skeletal Muscle
All skeletal muscles have a resting length. When our muscles are stretched to the ideal length, it can maximize muscular contraction. This lesson explains the length-tension relationship in skeletal muscle and explores how the arrangement of myofilaments in a sarcomere can impact tension and contraction.
9. Muscle Twitch, Wave Summation & Muscle Tension
Did you know that posture results from rapid stimulation of skeletal muscles? This lesson describes the nature of a muscle twitch and explains how individual contractions are added together resulting in tetanus and good posture.
10. How Motor Unit Summation Develops Muscle Tension
Did you know that skeletal muscles are composed of motor units? This lesson describes the nature of a motor unit and how motor unit recruitment regulates whole muscle contraction. Additionally, this lesson describes the effect of strength conditioning on muscle.
11. Isometric and Isotonic Contraction: Definition and Examples
Did you know that muscles can contract and not move your limbs? This lesson describes the nature of both isometric and isotonic skeletal muscle contraction. Examples are utilized to help you understand how this works.
12. Muscle Metabolism: Synthesis of ATP
Did you know our muscles use billions of molecules every second to contract? This lesson describes the different metabolic processes by which ATP is generated by the muscle cell. Examples are utilized to define glycolysis, the citric acid cycle and oxidative phosphorylation.
13. Skeletal Muscle Fibers: Types and Functions
Did you know most human muscles contain a mixture of fast, slow and intermediate fibers? This lesson describes the structure and function of the three muscle fiber types found in humans.
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