About This Chapter
Mutation & DNA Damage - Chapter Summary
This series of fun and informative biology lessons lays out the foundations of DNA damage and mutations. As you work through the chapter, you'll study the causes and effects of mutations, as well as a number of DNA repair processes. In additions to the lessons, the chapter comes with several quizzes that are designed to reinforce the information you study. If you have any questions throughout your studying process, simply reach out to our subject matter experts. They'll be happy to help! When you're finished with the chapter, you should be able to:
- Compare types of point mutations
- Describe the effects of mutations and frameshift mutations
- Assess mutagens and irradiation as causes of mutations and DNA damage
- Explain the process of DNA mismatch repair
- Tell how DNA damage can be reversed
- Discuss the process of fixing double-strand breaks in DNA
1. What is a Point Mutation? - Definition, Causes & Types
What are genetic mutations? How do they affect our DNA? This lesson covers the basics of point mutations and provides simple examples of different mutation types.
2. Effects of Mutations on Protein Function: Missense, Nonsense, and Silent Mutations
How does a tiny point mutation change the way a protein works? What are the consequences of base substitutions? In this lesson, we'll use an imaginary creature to explore missense, nonsense and silent mutations.
3. Effects of Frameshift Mutations: Definitions and Examples
What is a frameshift in genetic translation? How can a frameshift mutation change a protein? In this lesson, learn about the codon reading frame and how frameshift mutations cause serious problems for polypeptide formation.
4. Causes of Mutation and DNA Damage- Mutagens
Mutations, or changes in DNA sequences, are incredibly important in biology, from evolution and diversity to cancer and genetic diseases. But how do mutations happen? In this lesson, you'll learn about mutagens, which are chemicals that can cause mutations.
5. Causes of Mutation and DNA Damage- Irradiation
By now, you know what mutations are and what effects they can cause, but how do mutations happen? In this lesson, learn about one important cause of mutations, irradiation.
6. DNA Mismatch Repair: Correcting Errors That Happen During DNA Replication
Don't you love spell check? Well, our cells do, too. Their spell check is called mismatch repair. In this lesson, learn how cells use mismatch repair to correct typos that they might make while they replicate their DNA.
7. Reversing DNA Damage Caused by Mutagens and Irradiation
Nobody likes to have surgery, but sometimes it's necessary to cut out the bad parts and replace them with fresh new tissue. The same is true for DNA! In this lesson, learn how DNA damage can be repaired in both surgical and non-surgical ways.
8. DNA Repair: Fixing Double-Strand Breaks
'Humpty Dumpty sat on a wall...' We all know what happens next, right? In this lesson, learn what happens when DNA is broken into pieces and how our cells try to put them back together again.
9. What is Apoptosis? - Definition, Pathway & Examples
This lesson will discuss apoptosis, giving a definition and overview of importance. It will also delve into a few of the pathways by which apoptosis occurs and give some examples of when apoptosis is induced.
10. Apoptosis in the Cell Cycle & Cancer
Learn about natural cell death, called apoptosis, in normal cells and cancer cells, as well as treatments that are being developed to treat cancer by controlling apoptosis.
11. What Causes Cancer?
This lesson will discuss a model of cancer formation as well as some things that can cause cancer. You'll learn about initiation, promotion, and progression as well as what occurs during each step.
12. Tumor Suppressor Genes: Retinoblastoma Features, Genetic Cause & Treatment
In this lesson, you'll learn about retinoblastoma, which is a rare childhood cancer of the retina. Retinoblastoma is often inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion. Find out why retinoblastoma and other types of hereditary cancers are caused by dominant alleles by watching this lesson.
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Other chapters within the Biology 203: Cell & Molecular Biology course
- Biological Molecules
- Cell Structure & Function Overview
- Cell Membrane & Transport Overview
- Principles of Cell Metabolism
- Photosynthesis Fundamentals
- Cellular Respiration & Fermentation
- Cell Cycles
- Patterns of Genetic Inheritance
- DNA Structure & Replication
- The Central Dogma of Biology & Protein Synthesis
- Structure & Function of Viruses
- Control of Gene Expression
- Genetic Manipulation Overview