About This Chapter
NES General Science: Rocks & Minerals - Chapter Summary
This chapter provides you with an opportunity to revisit science concepts you haven't covered in months or years via entertaining video lessons. Take time to learn more about rocks and minerals to ensure you're ready to answer questions on the NES General Science assessment that address:
- Defining and understanding the differences between rocks and minerals
- Describing the rock cycle and identifying types of rocks
- Analyzing optical properties and the crystal shape of minerals
- Understanding mineral strength, mineral density and specific gravity
- Examining silicate and non-silicate minerals
You can watch the lessons in any order to tailor your studies to your specific learning needs. The short quiz with each lesson can help you determine which concepts you fully understand and which require further review.
Objectives of the NES General Science: Rocks & Minerals Chapter
The topics covered in this NES General Science: Rocks & Minerals chapter are part of the earth and space science content domain of the assessment, which is one of four content domains and constitutes about 19% of the total exam. Increase your chances of succeeding on this portion of the exam by learning more about rocks and minerals then testing what you've learned with short self-assessment quizzes and a comprehensive practice chapter exam.
All of the questions on this computer assessment are multiple choice, requiring you to read a short paragraph, sentence or question then choose the best of four available answers. To pass the exam, you must earn a score of at least 220. If you pass, you will be able to secure or enhance your state teacher licensure or certification.
1. Rocks and Minerals: Definitions and Differences
Rocks and minerals are natural objects with important uses, which include being used in the materials to produce things like automobiles, jewelry, and asphalt for highways. Learn about rocks and minerals, and explore their definitions and classification differences. Understand the geologic processes that create rocks, as well as the chemical properties of minerals.
2. Rock Cycle: Igneous, Sedimentary, and Metamorphic Rocks
The rock cycle describes the creation, alteration and destruction of the rocks that form from magma. Learn more about the rock cycle, including the three main rock types - igneous (magma that solidifies), sedimentary (rock made from eroded materials that are cemented together), and metamorphic (rocks that are transformed into new substances when exposed to intense heat and pressure) - and how they are formed.
3. Types of Rocks: The Three Major Rock Groups
There are three main types of rock: igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic. Explore the types of rock, the characteristics that make them different, and learn how the Earth forms each type.
4. Optical Properties of Minerals: Luster, Light Transmission, Color & Streak
A mineral is a naturally occurring inorganic solid with a particular crystalline structure. Explore the optical properties of minerals, including luster, light transmission, color, and streak, and discover why minerals are defined differently by geologists and the mining industry.
5. Crystal Shape of Minerals: Forms and Types
The crystal habit, or the external shape of a crystal, can be used to help identify minerals. Discover the different types of crystals, including euhedral and non-geometric, and their different habit forms.
6. Mineral Strength: Tenacity, Hardness, Cleavage & Fracture
Mineral strength is calculated by measuring tenacity, hardness, cleavage, and fracture. Examine the methods of each of these concepts through examples, and learn about the usage of the Mohs scale to determine the hardness of a mineral, and find examples of brittle, malleable, sectile, and elastic minerals.
7. Mineral Density & Specific Gravity: Definition and Properties
Mineral density, or the mass per volume, and specific gravity, or the ratio of mass to an equal volume of water, are used to identify minerals. Learn more about these properties and discover how to calculate mineral density and specific gravity through water displacement.
8. Silicate Minerals: Chemical Classifications & Examples
Most minerals on Earth are classified as silicate minerals with different chemical classifications. Learn to identify examples of silicate minerals, understand their chemical classifications, and discover the importance of the silicon-oxygen tetrahedra.
9. Non-silicate Minerals: Chemical Classifications & Examples
Non-silicate minerals lack silicon but are still an important part of the earth's composition. Learn to differentiate silicate from non-silicate materials and study the chemical classifications of non-silicate minerals through examples such as carbonates, sulfates, and halides.
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Other chapters within the NES General Science (311): Practice & Study Guide course
- About the NES Test
- NES General Science: Scientific Inquiry
- NES General Science: Science & Society
- Overview of Atoms & Atomic Theory
- Understanding States of Matter
- Chemical Formulas & Bonds
- NES General Science: The Mole Concept
- NES General Science: Chemical Reactions
- NES General Science: Solutions & Solubility Factors
- Energy Transformations of Matter
- Overview of Force & Motion
- Mechanical & Electromagnetic Waves
- Basics of Electricity & Magnetism
- Intro to Cellular Biology
- NES General Science: Traits of Living Organisms
- Overview of Human Body Systems
- Principles of Genetics
- NES General Science: Evolution
- NES General Science: Ecosystems
- NES General Science: Historical Geology
- Overview of Weathering & Erosion
- NES General Science: Plate Tectonics
- Intro to Earth's Hydrosphere
- Basics of the Atmosphere, Weather & Climate
- Overview of the Solar System & Universe
- NES General Science Flashcards