# Ch 5: Newton's Laws in Astronomy: Help and Review

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## Students will review:

This chapter helps students review the concepts in a Newton's Laws in Astronomy unit of a standard Intro to Astronomy course. Topics covered include:

- Newton's first law of motion
- Distinguishing between inertia and mass
- Mass and weight
- State of motion and velocity
- Defining force and types of force
- Balanced and unbalanced forces
- Free-body diagrams
- Net force defined
- Newton's second law of motion
- Determining the acceleration of an object
- Determining the individual forces acting upon an object
- Air resistance and free fall
- Newton's third law of motion
- Newton's laws and weight, mass and gravity
- Identifying action and reaction force pairs
- The normal force
- Friction defined and types of friction

### 1. Newton's First Law of Motion: Examples of the Effect of Force on Motion

This lesson describes Newton's first law of motion, also known as the law of inertia. The interaction between force and motion is explained. Several examples are used to discuss the implications of this law on earth and in space.

### 2. Distinguishing Between Inertia and Mass

Mass and inertia are both related to the amount of matter an object has, but they aren't exactly the same thing. In this video lesson, you'll see how mass affects an object's inertia, which in turn affects that object's motion.

### 3. Mass and Weight: Differences and Calculations

We often talk about mass and weight as if they are the same. While they are proportional to each other, they are not in fact the same. In this video lesson you will learn to distinguish between the two, as well as convert one to the other.

### 4. State of Motion and Velocity

An object's state of motion describes how it is moving. But there are many ways we can describe motion, such as speed and velocity. This motion is relative to other objects around it, such as the earth, the sun, and even other stars in our galaxy.

### 5. Force: Definition and Types

Force is everywhere and it comes in a variety of sizes, directions, and types. In this video lesson, you'll identify force as well the different types of force that objects may experience.

### 6. Forces: Balanced and Unbalanced

Forces are needed to start or stop an object's motion, but can also be involved when an object is at rest or already traveling at constant velocity. In this video lesson, you'll identify the difference between balanced and unbalanced forces, understanding how they affect the movement of objects.

### 7. Free-Body Diagrams

Forces that act on an object can be drawn through special vector diagrams called free-body diagrams. In this video lesson you'll identify how to correctly represent forces in a free-body diagram through vector arrows and force labels.

### 8. Net Force: Definition and Calculations

Because forces are vectors, we can't simply add them up to get a total amount of force on an object. Instead, we calculate the net force, which is important to understand because it tells us about an object's state of motion.

### 9. Newton's Second Law of Motion: The Relationship Between Force and Acceleration

This lesson defines Newton's second law of motion. Examples are used to illustrate how unbalanced forces cause objects to accelerate. The examples are used to practice calculating acceleration and force for objects in motion.

### 10. Determining the Acceleration of an Object

Acceleration is a change in an object's state of motion. A few variables need to be identified to calculate an object's acceleration, but once we have those values, we can put them into a simple equation to find out how quickly or slowly an object's velocity is changing.

### 11. Determining the Individual Forces Acting Upon an Object

Objects constantly have forces acting on them whether they are moving or at rest. In this video lesson, you'll understand how to identify the individual forces acting on an object by reviewing the different types of forces and the use of free-body diagrams.

### 12. Air Resistance and Free Fall

Through experiments by Galileo and Newton, we can understand why all objects in free-fall experience the same acceleration, ''g''. We can also see why air resistance affects a falling object's velocity and how this can lead to a falling object reaching a terminal velocity.

### 13. Newton's Third Law of Motion: Examples of the Relationship Between Two Forces

This lesson describes Newton's third law of motion. Examples are provided to illustrate how interacting objects experience forces. The lesson explains how objects accelerate as a result of force. Applications of Newton's third law are illustrated in nature, machines, and space.

### 14. Newton's Laws and Weight, Mass & Gravity

Did you know that mass and weight are not the same? This lesson describes the difference between the two as well as the effect of gravity on weight. Examples are used to teach you how to calculate weight based on mass and acceleration of gravity.

### 15. Identifying Action and Reaction Force Pairs

Good things often come in pairs, and forces are no exception. In this lesson you'll explore Newton's second and third laws of motion to understand how action and reaction pairs affect objects interacting with each other.

### 16. The Normal Force: Definition and Examples

The normal force is also called the contact force because it only exists when objects are touching. In this lesson, we will investigate what the normal force is and how to calculate it on flat and inclined surfaces.

### 17. Friction: Definition and Types

You experience friction all the time, and you should be glad you do! Friction helps keep stationary objects in place as well as slow moving objects down as they slide across a surface. This lesson identifies what friction is and explains the two ways we find this force on earth.

### 18. The Law of Universal Gravitation: Definition, Importance & Examples

Gravity is what pulls us toward Earth, but it's also what pulls Earth toward us. This is explained by the law of universal gravitation, which describes how all objects in the universe have this important force between them.

### 19. Newton's Law of Gravitation: Definition & Examples

This lesson explains how gravity works mathematically and teaches you how to use Newton's Law of Gravitation to solve problems. A short quiz will follow.

### 20. Work as an Integral

After watching this video, you will be able to solve calculus problems involving work and explain how that relates to the area under a force-displacement graph. A short quiz will follow.

### 21. Gravitational Potential Energy: Definition, Formula & Examples

In this lesson, you will learn what gravitational potential is, the equation we use to calculate it, and how to use that equation. We'll look at some real-life examples so you can see how it works. A short quiz will follow.

### 22. Gravitational Attraction of Extended Bodies

After watching this lesson, you will be able to explain what an extended body is, understand the derivation for the force of gravity between a point charge and a long, thin bar and solve problems using the result of that derivation.

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### Other Chapters

Other chapters within the Intro to Astronomy: Help and Review course

- The History of Astronomy: Help and Review
- How Scientists Think and Work: Help and Review
- Matter, Energy, and Astronomy: Help and Review
- Light in Astronomy: Help and Review
- Rotational Motion and Astronomy: Help and Review
- Orbits, Tides, and Gravity: Help and Review
- Relativity in Time and Space: Help and Review
- Conservation Laws in Astronomy: Help and Review
- Earth's Spheres and Astronomy: Help and Review
- The Earth, Sky, and Moon: Help and Review
- The Moon's Form and Phases: Help and Review
- The Atmosphere on Earth and Other Planets: Help and Review
- Influences on Climate: Help and Review
- The Sun and Energy: Help and Review
- Star Types and Significance: Help and Review
- Measurement of Star Qualities: Help and Review
- The Birth and Life of Stars: Help and Review
- Star Death and Stellar Remnants: Help and Review
- Formation of the Solar System: Help and Review
- Galaxies, Stars and Solar Systems
- Components of the Solar System: Help and Review
- Small Celestial Bodies in the Solar System: Help and Review
- The Milky Way Galaxy: Help and Review
- Characteristics of Galaxies: Help and Review
- Life & the Universe: Help and Review
- Navigation and Timekeeping in Astronomy: Help and Review
- Telescopes: Help and Review