# Ch 5: Newton's Laws in Astronomy Lesson Plans

### About This Chapter

## Weekly Syllabus

Below is a sample breakdown of the Newton's Laws in Astronomy chapter into a 5-day school week. Based on the pace of your course, you may need to adapt the lesson plan to fit your needs.

Day | Topics | Key Terms and Concepts Covered |
---|---|---|

Monday | Newton's First, Second and Third Law of Motion Newton's Laws and weight, mass and gravity The law of universal gravitation Newton's law of gravitation | How force impacts motion How force and acceleration interact Examples of the relationship between two forces How Newton's laws can help with the understanding of weight, mass and gravity Definition of the law of universal gravitation, its function, examples What the law of gravitation explains, its equation, the inverse-square law |

Tuesday | Definition and types of force Work as an integral Mass and weight The normal force | Definition of forces, contact and non-contact forces Definition of work as an integral Difference between weight and mass, calculating weight when the mass is known Definition of normal force with examples |

Wednesday | Friction Forces Identifying action and reaction force pairs Net force Determining individual forces acting upon an object | Definition of friction and the types of friction force Definition and characteristics of balanced and unbalanced forces How to identify and describe action-reaction force pairs Definition of net force and how to calculate it How to calculate the individual forces acting on an object |

Thursday | Free-body diagrams Inertia and mass State of motion and velocity The acceleration of an object | How to represent forces in a free-body diagram, vector quantity, unbalanced forces Difference in mass and inertia, the relationship between the two How state of motion and velocity are related Calculations to figure out the acceleration of an object |

Friday | Air resistance Gravitational potential energy Gravitational attraction of extended bodies The acceleration of gravity | Air resistance, terminal velocity, speed of the fall Definition of gravitational potential energy with examples Description of gravitational attraction by an extended body Definition of acceleration for an object influenced only by gravity, concept of free fall, formula for acceleration due to gravity |

### 1. Newton's First Law of Motion: Examples of the Effect of Force on Motion

This lesson describes Newton's first law of motion, also known as the law of inertia. The interaction between force and motion is explained. Several examples are used to discuss the implications of this law on earth and in space.

### 2. Newton's Second Law of Motion: The Relationship Between Force and Acceleration

This lesson defines Newton's second law of motion. Examples are used to illustrate how unbalanced forces cause objects to accelerate. The examples are used to practice calculating acceleration and force for objects in motion.

### 3. Newton's Third Law of Motion: Examples of the Relationship Between Two Forces

This lesson describes Newton's third law of motion. Examples are provided to illustrate how interacting objects experience forces. The lesson explains how objects accelerate as a result of force. Applications of Newton's third law are illustrated in nature, machines, and space.

### 4. Newton's Laws and Weight, Mass & Gravity

Did you know that mass and weight are not the same? This lesson describes the difference between the two as well as the effect of gravity on weight. Examples are used to teach you how to calculate weight based on mass and acceleration of gravity.

### 5. The Law of Universal Gravitation: Definition, Importance & Examples

Gravity is what pulls us toward Earth, but it's also what pulls Earth toward us. This is explained by the law of universal gravitation, which describes how all objects in the universe have this important force between them.

### 6. Force: Definition and Types

Force is everywhere and it comes in a variety of sizes, directions, and types. In this video lesson, you'll identify force as well the different types of force that objects may experience.

### 7. Mass and Weight: Differences and Calculations

We often talk about mass and weight as if they are the same. While they are proportional to each other, they are not, in fact, the same. In this video lesson, you will learn to distinguish between the two, as well as convert one to the other.

### 8. The Normal Force: Definition and Examples

The normal force is also called the contact force because it only exists when objects are touching. In this lesson, we will investigate what the normal force is and how to calculate it on flat and inclined surfaces.

### 9. Friction: Definition and Types

You experience friction all the time, and you should be glad you do! Friction helps keep stationary objects in place as well as slow moving objects down as they slide across a surface. This lesson identifies what friction is and explains the two ways we find this force on earth.

### 10. Forces: Balanced and Unbalanced

Forces are needed to start or stop an object's motion, but can also be involved when an object is at rest or already traveling at constant velocity. In this video lesson, you'll identify the difference between balanced and unbalanced forces, understanding how they affect the movement of objects.

### 11. Identifying Action and Reaction Force Pairs

Good things often come in pairs, and forces are no exception. In this lesson you'll explore Newton's second and third laws of motion to understand how action and reaction pairs affect objects interacting with each other.

### 12. Net Force: Definition and Calculations

Because forces are vectors, we can't simply add them up to get a total amount of force on an object. Instead, we calculate the net force, which is important to understand because it tells us about an object's state of motion.

### 13. Determining the Individual Forces Acting Upon an Object

Objects constantly have forces acting on them whether they are moving or at rest. In this video lesson, you'll understand how to identify the individual forces acting on an object by reviewing the different types of forces and the use of free-body diagrams.

### 14. Free-Body Diagrams

Forces that act on an object can be drawn through special vector diagrams called free-body diagrams. In this video lesson you'll identify how to correctly represent forces in a free-body diagram through vector arrows and force labels.

### 15. Distinguishing Between Inertia and Mass

Mass and inertia are both related to the amount of matter an object has, but they aren't exactly the same thing. In this video lesson, you'll see how mass affects an object's inertia, which in turn affects that object's motion.

### 16. State of Motion and Velocity

An object's state of motion describes how it is moving. But there are many ways we can describe motion, such as speed and velocity. This motion is relative to other objects around it, such as the earth, the sun, and even other stars in our galaxy.

### 17. Determining the Acceleration of an Object

Acceleration is a change in an object's state of motion. A few variables need to be identified to calculate an object's acceleration, but once we have those values, we can put them into a simple equation to find out how quickly or slowly an object's velocity is changing.

### 18. Air Resistance and Free Fall

Through experiments by Galileo and Newton, we can understand why all objects in free-fall experience the same acceleration, ''g''. We can also see why air resistance affects a falling object's velocity and how this can lead to a falling object reaching a terminal velocity.

### 19. The Acceleration of Gravity: Definition & Formula

In this lesson, we will introduce the acceleration due to gravity. Objects in free fall are one of the few real world examples of straight line motion with constant acceleration, so they are commonly used when learning kinematics.

### 20. Newton's Law of Gravitation: Definition & Examples

This lesson explains how gravity works mathematically and teaches you how to use Newton's Law of Gravitation to solve problems. A short quiz will follow.

### 21. Work as an Integral

After watching this video, you will be able to solve calculus problems involving work and explain how that relates to the area under a force-displacement graph. A short quiz will follow.

### 22. Gravitational Potential Energy: Definition, Formula & Examples

In this lesson, you will learn what gravitational potential is, the equation we use to calculate it, and how to use that equation. We'll look at some real-life examples so you can see how it works. A short quiz will follow.

### 23. Gravitational Attraction of Extended Bodies

After watching this lesson, you will be able to explain what an extended body is, understand the derivation for the force of gravity between a point charge and a long, thin bar and solve problems using the result of that derivation.

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### Other Chapters

Other chapters within the Astronomy 101 Syllabus Resource & Lesson Plans course

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- Light in Astronomy Lesson Plans
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